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Albaner keine Illyrer

Erstellt von Amphion, 09.08.2009, 17:20 Uhr · 1.016 Antworten · 237.460 Aufrufe

  1. #201

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    Zitat Zitat von ooops Beitrag anzeigen
    hier gings um "Mazedonier" und Bulgaren Bzw Proto-Bulgaren die slawisiert wurden, deren Sprache deine Nation spricht. ich hab eine Frage gestellt bevor du behauptest Albaner seien aus Caucasus. wie viele Wissenschaftler unterstützen diese Idee? ich mein ausser Slawischer "Wissenschaftler"?

    nun wenn wir aber diskutieren, sollten wir das ganze Diskutieren und nicht dich hier voll Spamen mit irgendwelchen Pseudo-Wissenschaftlichen Quellen.
    ja genau, alles slawen

    "Henry Skene"

    Zitat Zitat von ooops Beitrag anzeigen
    deren Sprache deine Nation spricht
    ist doch einleuchtend oder?

  2. #202

    Registriert seit
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    Wer nicht verstehen kann muss deuten


    Also mein wannabehobby historiker. Die Kroaten fingen mit der These schon im 16ten Jahrhundert an, kroatisch wurde kurzerhand zu illyrisch umbenannt und ein Ilir war ein Kroate, mit der Zeit waren dann sogar allgemein die Südslawen also Jugoslawen davon überzeugt sie seien die Nachkommen der Illyrer.

    Aber durch neue Erkentnisse über die Slawen und slawische Sprache wurde dieses wieder abgelegt.

    übrigens wurde diese These vor ca 200 Jahren widerlegt, nur zur Info


    Mehr nachzulesen unter: Akleksander Stipcevic

    Zitat Zitat von Amphion Beitrag anzeigen
    Albaner keine Illyrer:
    Wenn ich den Text hier richtig deute, so fühlten sich zuerst die Südslawen als Illyrer, überwiegend Kroaten und Slowenen. Die Albaner sind auf dem Zug des Illyrers erst druafgesprungen, als sich die Kroaten und Slowenen davon freigemacht hatten. Bitte selber prüfen, hier der Text mit Quellen-URL:
    -

    Illyrer Infos

    Illyrer ist ein Sammelname für indoeuropäische Völker am Ostufer der Adria. Sie besiedelten ein Gebiet, das von Ostösterreich über Serbien und Albanien bis nach Nordgriechenland reichte. Die Illyrer gelten als die Träger der Hallstattkultur. Im Gebiet des heutigen Österreich wurden sie jedoch schon gegen 500 v. Chr von den Kelten verdrängt.
    Seit dem 6. Jahrhundert v. Chr kamen die Händler der griechischen Städte mit Illyrern in Kontakt, die als Piraten sehr gefürchtet waren. Deren politische Zentren waren in der Nähe der heutigen Städte Durres und Skutari. 228 v. Chr kamen sie in die Abhängigkeit Roms und wurden unter Caesar dem Reich angegliedert. Mit dem Erreichen der Donaugrenze unter Augustus wurden die Provinzen Dalmatia und Pannonia geschaffen. Nach einem Aufstand 9 v. Chr setzte eine intensive Romanisierung ein. Die Armee des spätrömischen Reiches bestand zu grossen Teilen aus diesen romanisierten Illyrern. Mehrere römische Kaiser waren Illyrer, z.B. Claudius II. Gothicus, Aurelian, Probus, Diokletian und Constantin. Nach dem Einfall der Slawen ging die illyrische Vorbevölkerung, wie auch die Thraker, im Laufe weniger Jahrhunderte zum großen Teil in den Südslawen auf.

    Illyrer und Albaner

    Von der illyrischen Sprache kennt man bis auf wenige Worte nur Orts- und Personennamen, die vornehmlich auf Grab- und Gebäudeinschriften überliefert sind. Bis heute umstritten, ist die von einigen Sprachwissenschaftlern vertretene These, dass sich die albanische Sprache auf der Basis eines illyrischen Substrats entwickelt hat. Die Beweisführung ist schwierig, weil es von der Spätantike bis zum 14. Jahrhundert keine Quellen über die Sprachentwicklung, dieser nur mündlich gebrauchten Idiome gibt. Allerdings bietet die Illyrer-Albaner-These eine plausible Erklärung für die Existenz des modernen Albanischen, als einem isolierten Glied der indoeuropäischen Sprachgruppe, wie auch die griechische Sprache eines ist. Denn nur auf der Basis einer älteren Sprache konnten sich solche Sprachen entwickeln. Die besonders unter albanischen Sprachwissenschaftlern betonte enge Verwandtschaft der antiken illyrischen Dialekte mit dem modernen Albanisch ist jedoch recht zweifelhaft, lassen sich doch im Albanischen überaus zahlreiche Entlehnungen aus dem Lateinischen und Griechischen und auch dem Slawischen nachweisen, die schon lange wirksam waren, ehe im 15. Jahrhundert die ersten Überlieferungen über die albanische Sprache einsetzen.

    Illyrismus und Südslawen

    Durch ihren halb legendenhaften Charakter eigneten sich die Illyrer gut als Anknüpfungspunkt für nationale Identitätsstiftung. Die Vorkämpfer der südslawischen Nationalismen im 19. Jahrhundert behaupteten, dass ihre Völker von den Illyrern abstammen. Besonders verbreitet war diese These bei den Kroaten und Slowenen. Der südslawische Illyrismus postulierte die ethnische Einheit aller Südslawen, die nur in eng verwandte Stämme untergliedert seien. Bereits Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts spielte die Illyrerthese für die südslawischen Nationalismen keine Rolle mehr. Heute berufen sich nur die Albaner auf ihre illyrische Abstammung.
    Siehe auch: Illyrien, Veneter, Nordwestblock, Seevölker


    • Cabanes, Pierre: Les Illyriens de Bardylis à Genthios (IVe - IIe siècles avant J.-C.). (= Regards sur l'histoire. 65). Paris 1988. ISBN 2-7181-3841-6
    • Cabanes, Pierre (Hrsg.): Grecs et Illyriens dans les inscriptions en langue grecque d'Epidamne-Dyrrhachion et d'Apollonia d'Illyrie. Actes de la table ronde internationale (Clermont-Ferrand, 19 - 21 octobre 1989). Paris 1993. ISBN 2-86538-241-9
    • Ceka, Neritan: Ilirët. Tiranë 2000. ISBN 99927-0-098-X
    • Frommer, Hansjörg: Die Illyrer. 4000 Jahre europäischer Geschichte. Vom 3. Jahrtausend bis zum Beginn der Neuzeit. Karlsruhe 1988. ISBN 3-88190-100-0.
    • Lippert, Andreas (Hrsg.): Die Illyrer. Katalog zu einer Ausstellung von archäologischen Funden der albanischen Eisenzeit (12. - 4. Jh. v. Chr.) aus den Sammlungen des Archäologischen Institutes der Albanischen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Tirana und des Archäologischen Museums in Durrës. Sonderausstellung im Museum für Urgeschichte des Landes Niederösterreich, Asparn an der Zaya vom 3. April bis 30. November 2004. (= Katalog des NÖ. Landesmuseums. N.F. 448 .[St. Pölten] 2004. ISBN 3-85460-215-4.
    • Wilkes, John: The Illyrians. Oxford [u.a.] 1995. ISBN 0-631-19807-5
    Eine Quelle zum kroatischen Illyrismus:

    • Draskovic, Janko: Ein Wort an Iliriens hochherzige Töchter über die ältere Geschichte und neueste literarische Regeneration ihres Vaterlandes. Agram 1838.
    -
    Illyrer Info

  3. #203

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    @Balkanmensch/Aphilion:


    Dein Titel ist nicht erlaubt, es ist eine falsche Behauptung die auch in deinem text nicht gestützt wird.

    daher bitte ich dich den Titel zu ändern.

  4. #204
    Avatar von AulOn

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    ALBANIAN DNA: The most old of the Balcans


    HLA Class I Polymorphism in the Albanian Population" Z. Grubi}1, V. Kerhin-Brklja~i}1, E. ^e~uk-Jeli~i}1, S. Kuci2 and A. Ka{telan1 1 National Referral Organ Transplantation and Tissue Typing Center, University Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia 2 Faculty of Medicine Prishtina, Prishtina, Kosovo

    Link: cache...n - Google Search
    Link: http://hrcak.srce.hr/file/15462 ne file PDF
    Link: http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=...ak_jezik=15462



    "High-Resolution Phylogenetic Analysis of Southeastern Europe Traces Major Episodes of Paternal Gene Flow Among Slavic Populations"when:"Almost 93% of SEE E3b1 chromosomes are classified into ALPHA cluster. In Europe, the highest E3b1a variance is among Apulians, Greeks, and Macedonians, and the highest frequency of the cluster is among Albanians, Macedonians,and Greeks (table 1)." If you make a total % of albanians of albania and albanians of kosovo all Albanians have the max Erb1-a freq. After them are the aromenians (latinized balkan substract). And then after the greeks and apulians. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/re...22/10/1964.pdf


    Cruciani concluded that the distribution of the E3b1-alpha cluster in Europe indicates a Neolithic or post-Neolithic expansion out of the Balkans into Europe that spread as far west as the Iberian peninsula, and southeast to Turkey. STR diversity analysis gives an estimate of about 8 thousand years ago for that expansion
    Nje studim tjeter: Semino: It's interesting to note that another recent study concluded that a J sub-group, J2e1 (J-M102), also expanded into Europe from the Balkans during the Neolithic period. Most likely due to genetic drift, Kosovar Albanians harbor a J2e frequency peak whereas variance maximum declines from the southeastern edge of the studied region

    E3b1a (i clasterit alfa):
    Link: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb....g/YCC_E3b.html

    ccording to Semino: The footprint of J2e1 (M102) on the European map indicates some sort of connection between the southern Balkans and north-central Italy. One possible explanation is that J2e1 may have dispersed into Europe from the Balkans.Some of the highest frequencies that Semino et al saw for J2e1 were Albania (14.3% of total population), north-central Italy (9.6%), Greece (6.5%) Croatia etc Semino et al estimated the date of the M102 mutation at about 8000 years ago."

    First of all Albanian and kosovars are the same peoples. The max frequencies of J2e are among Albanians, the some for E3b1. This 2 Haplogroupe are belived to exist there before the Roman arivals.(J2e% + E3b1a% = 16 + 45 = 61%) All this 2 haplogroup have max freq in albanians and this is a sign of distinction from slavs. In 2000 BC there have been different migration in to balkan no one can say there have ben only one haplogroup.


    “Maternal and paternal lineages in Albania and the genetic structure of Indo-European populations”
    Link: http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v...f/5200443a.pdf

    he Albanians show considerable genetic distances with all the populations; however, 14 pair of comparisons between the Albanians and the European populations show a high level of identity. (This is for all Albanians not kosovars only) This is a Correlation function not the sum of the Haplogroupe. And by this function that we conclude that Albanians & Kosovars have one of the strongest Dna identity in Balkans. By a correlation of 14 values. It is not the some for greeks (Greeks have a SE identity but not a greek one)

    Survey of anthropological features of the Illyrians": The purpose of this paper is to bring to evidence the physical traits of the ancient inhabitants of Albania, the Illyrians, through an anthropological study of 93 human skeletons of different periods. Based on the available typological data the author comes to the conclusion that the Illyrians of the Albanian territory constituted an Adriatic-Mediterranean population with Nordic and Alpine minorities. The results of this study throw light on certain historical phenomena, which are linked with the origin and formation of the Illyrians"
    This survey have shown that Albanians of today are the direct descendents of Illirian-Thraco race!
    Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3...ubmed_RVDocSum


    1-Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Medizinische Bibliothek, Germany
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects...de=tu&JrId=680

    2-Universitaets- und Landesbibliothek Duesseldorf, Germany
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects...de=tu&JrId=680

    3-Biblioteche Universitarie e dell' Area di Bologna , ITALI
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects...de=tu&JrId=680

    4-Harvard University Library
    http://sfx.hul.harvard.edu/sfx_local..._char_set=utf8

    5- University of Calgary Library, Canada
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects...de=tu&JrId=680

    6- University of Vermont Dana Medical Library ne SHBA
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects...de=tu&JrId=680

    6) Nje studim tjeter: “Haplogroup E3b1a2 as a Possible Indicator of Settlement in Roman Britain by Soldiers of Balkan Origin" Steven C. Bird .
    Steve Bird for albanians:the genetic evidence would seem to support a much greater Thracian presence, in line with the rest of the Balkan peninsula, but at a higher percentage. In a spirit of compromise, they are sometimes also described as "Thraco-Illyrians," a blending of the two "barbarian" tribal groups north of the Greeks.
    Link: http://www.jogg.info/32/bird.pdf



  5. #205

    Registriert seit
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    Zitat Zitat von LouWeed Beitrag anzeigen
    ja genau, alles slawen

    "Henry Skene"


    ist doch einleuchtend oder?
    erst kürzlich wurden christliche Inschriften des albanischen aus dem Kaukasus gefunden, die wiederum belegen eindeutiog dass albanisch aus dem Balkan eine völlig andere Sprache ist als das auf dem Kaukasus.


    Das Wissenschaftliche Institut behauptet immernoch die Albaner kommen aus dem Kaukasus

    .....die Idee kam den "Profs" beim cevaocici verkaufen..

    Die albanologische Forschung, als ein extra Fach für die Albaner in Wien und München sowie alle anerkannten Albanologen und Historiker lachen über diese Kaukasus These

  6. #206
    Avatar von AulOn

    Registriert seit
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    ALBANIAN DNA: The most old of the Balcans


    HLA Class I Polymorphism in the Albanian Population" Z. Grubi}1, V. Kerhin-Brklja~i}1, E. ^e~uk-Jeli~i}1, S. Kuci2 and A. Ka{telan1 1 National Referral Organ Transplantation and Tissue Typing Center, University Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia 2 Faculty of Medicine Prishtina, Prishtina, Kosovo

    Link: cache...n - Google Search
    Link: http://hrcak.srce.hr/file/15462 ne file PDF
    Link: http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=...ak_jezik=15462



    "High-Resolution Phylogenetic Analysis of Southeastern Europe Traces Major Episodes of Paternal Gene Flow Among Slavic Populations"when:"Almost 93% of SEE E3b1 chromosomes are classified into ALPHA cluster. In Europe, the highest E3b1a variance is among Apulians, Greeks, and Macedonians, and the highest frequency of the cluster is among Albanians, Macedonians,and Greeks (table 1)." If you make a total % of albanians of albania and albanians of kosovo all Albanians have the max Erb1-a freq. After them are the aromenians (latinized balkan substract). And then after the greeks and apulians. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/re...22/10/1964.pdf


    Cruciani concluded that the distribution of the E3b1-alpha cluster in Europe indicates a Neolithic or post-Neolithic expansion out of the Balkans into Europe that spread as far west as the Iberian peninsula, and southeast to Turkey. STR diversity analysis gives an estimate of about 8 thousand years ago for that expansion
    Nje studim tjeter: Semino: It's interesting to note that another recent study concluded that a J sub-group, J2e1 (J-M102), also expanded into Europe from the Balkans during the Neolithic period. Most likely due to genetic drift, Kosovar Albanians harbor a J2e frequency peak whereas variance maximum declines from the southeastern edge of the studied region

    E3b1a (i clasterit alfa):
    Link: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb....g/YCC_E3b.html

    ccording to Semino: The footprint of J2e1 (M102) on the European map indicates some sort of connection between the southern Balkans and north-central Italy. One possible explanation is that J2e1 may have dispersed into Europe from the Balkans.Some of the highest frequencies that Semino et al saw for J2e1 were Albania (14.3% of total population), north-central Italy (9.6%), Greece (6.5%) Croatia etc Semino et al estimated the date of the M102 mutation at about 8000 years ago."

    First of all Albanian and kosovars are the same peoples. The max frequencies of J2e are among Albanians, the some for E3b1. This 2 Haplogroupe are belived to exist there before the Roman arivals.(J2e% + E3b1a% = 16 + 45 = 61%) All this 2 haplogroup have max freq in albanians and this is a sign of distinction from slavs. In 2000 BC there have been different migration in to balkan no one can say there have ben only one haplogroup.


    “Maternal and paternal lineages in Albania and the genetic structure of Indo-European populations”
    Link: http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v...f/5200443a.pdf

    he Albanians show considerable genetic distances with all the populations; however, 14 pair of comparisons between the Albanians and the European populations show a high level of identity. (This is for all Albanians not kosovars only) This is a Correlation function not the sum of the Haplogroupe. And by this function that we conclude that Albanians & Kosovars have one of the strongest Dna identity in Balkans. By a correlation of 14 values. It is not the some for greeks (Greeks have a SE identity but not a greek one)

    Survey of anthropological features of the Illyrians": The purpose of this paper is to bring to evidence the physical traits of the ancient inhabitants of Albania, the Illyrians, through an anthropological study of 93 human skeletons of different periods. Based on the available typological data the author comes to the conclusion that the Illyrians of the Albanian territory constituted an Adriatic-Mediterranean population with Nordic and Alpine minorities. The results of this study throw light on certain historical phenomena, which are linked with the origin and formation of the Illyrians"
    This survey have shown that Albanians of today are the direct descendents of Illirian-Thraco race!
    Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3...ubmed_RVDocSum


    1-Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Medizinische Bibliothek, Germany
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects...de=tu&JrId=680

    2-Universitaets- und Landesbibliothek Duesseldorf, Germany
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects...de=tu&JrId=680

    3-Biblioteche Universitarie e dell' Area di Bologna , ITALI
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects...de=tu&JrId=680

    4-Harvard University Library
    http://sfx.hul.harvard.edu/sfx_local..._char_set=utf8

    5- University of Calgary Library, Canada
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects...de=tu&JrId=680

    6- University of Vermont Dana Medical Library ne SHBA
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects...de=tu&JrId=680

    6) Nje studim tjeter: “Haplogroup E3b1a2 as a Possible Indicator of Settlement in Roman Britain by Soldiers of Balkan Origin" Steven C. Bird .
    Steve Bird for albanians:the genetic evidence would seem to support a much greater Thracian presence, in line with the rest of the Balkan peninsula, but at a higher percentage. In a spirit of compromise, they are sometimes also described as "Thraco-Illyrians," a blending of the two "barbarian" tribal groups north of the Greeks.
    Link: http://www.jogg.info/32/bird.pdf



  7. #207

    Registriert seit
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    778
    Zitat Zitat von bumbum Beitrag anzeigen
    erst kürzlich wurden christliche Inschriften des albanischen aus dem Kaukasus gefunden, die wiederum belegen eindeutiog dass albanisch aus dem Balkan eine völlig andere Sprache ist als das auf dem Kaukasus.
    quelle?


    hier mal was

    Armenia alba is one of the highest regions in the world...
    identical place-names between Albania and Caucasus:
    Albo-Arnauti -Caucasus- Arnauti
    Albo-Bushati - Caucasus-Bushati (also the name of an Albanian tribe)
    Albo-Baboti - Caucasus-Baboti
    Albo-Baka -Caucasus-Bako
    Albo-Ballagati - Caucasus-Balagati
    Albo-Ballaj,Balli - Caucasus- Bali
    Albo-Bashkimi - Caucasus-Bashkoi
    Albo-Bathore- Caucasus- Batharia
    Albo-Bater- Caucasus- Bataris
    Albo-Geg - Caucasus-Gegi, Gegeni, Geguti (Term used by Albanians in their language to denote their brethre north of the Shkumbi R.)
    Albo-Demir Kapia - Caucasus-Demir Kapia (Turkish term: "iron gates"; term by which Turks refered to the Caspian Sea or arch: Albanian Sea)
    Albo-Kish, Kisha... - Caucasus-Kish (Eight different toponyms in Albania begin with "kish")
    Albo-Kurata,Kuratem,Kurateni(villages)-Caucasus-Kura (river) (Nine different toponyms in Albania begin with "Kura")
    Albo-Luginasi - Caucasus-Lugini
    Albo-Rusani - Caucasus-Rusian
    Albo-Sheshani, Shoshani, Shashani - Caucasus-Shashani
    Albo-Sheshaj, Sheshi - Caucasus-Sheshleti
    Albo-Skalla - Caucasus-Skaleri
    Albo-Shiptari Shipyaki, Shkhepa, - Caucasus-Shkepi
    Albo-Shkoder - Caucasus-Shkeder, Shked, Shkoda
    Albo-Shekulli - Caucasus-Shekouli
    Albo-Skuraj - Caucasus-Skuria

  8. #208
    Avatar von AulOn

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    Albania - THE ANCIENT ILLYRIANS


    ystery enshrouds the exact origins of today's Albanians. Most historians of the Balkans believe the Albanian people are in large part descendants of the ancient Illyrians, who, like other Balkan peoples, were subdivided into tribes and clans. The name Albania is derived from the name of an Illyrian tribe called the Arber, or Arbereshë, and later Albanoi, that lived near Durrës. The Illyrians were Indo-European tribesmen who appeared in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula about 1000 B.C., a period coinciding with the end of the Bronze Age and beginning of the Iron Age. They inhabited much of the area for at least the next millennium. Archaeologists associate the Illyrians with the Hallstatt culture, an Iron Age people noted for production of iron and bronze swords with winged-shaped handles and for domestication of horses. The Illyrians occupied lands extending from the Danube, Sava, and Morava rivers to the Adriatic Sea and the Sar Mountains. At various times, groups of Illyrians migrated over land and sea into Italy. The Illyrians carried on commerce and warfare with their neighbors. The ancient Macedonians probably had some Illyrian roots, but their ruling class adopted Greek cultural characteristics. The Illyrians also mingled with the Thracians, another ancient people with adjoining lands on the east. In the south and along the Adriatic Sea coast, the Illyrians were heavily influenced by the Greeks, who founded trading colonies there. The present-day city of Durrës evolved from a Greek colony known as Epidamnos, which was founded at the end of the seventh century B.C. Another famous Greek colony, Apollonia, arose between Durrës and the port city of Vlorë.
    The Illyrians produced and traded cattle, horses, agricultural goods, and wares fashioned from locally mined copper and iron. Feuds and warfare were constant facts of life for the Illyrian tribes, and Illyrian pirates plagued shipping on the Adriatic Sea. Councils of elders chose the chieftains who headed each of the numerous Illyrian tribes. From time to time, local chieftains extended their rule over other tribes and formed short-lived kingdoms. During the fifth century B.C., a well-developed Illyrian population center existed as far north as the upper Sava River valley in what is now Slovenia. Illyrian friezes discovered near the present-day Slovenian city of Ljubljana depict ritual sacrifices, feasts, battles, sporting events, and other activities.
    The Illyrian kingdom of Bardhyllus became a formidable local power in the fourth century B.C. In 358 B.C., however, Macedonia's Philip II, father of Alexander the Great, defeated the Illyrians and assumed control of their territory as far as Lake Ohrid (see fig. 5). Alexander himself routed the forces of the Illyrian chieftain Clitus in 335 B.C., and Illyrian tribal leaders and soldiers accompanied Alexander on his conquest of Persia. After Alexander's death in 323 B.C., independent Illyrian kingdoms again arose. In 312 B.C., King Glaucius expelled the Greeks from Durrës. By the end of the third century, an Illyrian kingdom based near what is now the Albanian city of Shkodër controlled parts of northern Albania, Montenegro, and Hercegovina. Under Queen Teuta, Illyrians attacked Roman merchant vessels plying the Adriatic Sea and gave Rome an excuse to invade the Balkans.
    In the Illyrian Wars of 229 and 219 B.C., Rome overran the Illyrian settlements in the Neretva River valley. The Romans made new gains in 168 B.C., and Roman forces captured Illyria's King Gentius at Shkodër, which they called Scodra, and brought him to Rome in 165 B.C. A century later, Julius Caesar and his rival Pompey fought their decisive battle near Durrës (Dyrrachium). Rome finally subjugated recalcitrant Illyrian tribes in the western Balkans dwing the region of Emperor Tiberius in A.D. 9. The Romans divided the lands that make up present-day Albania among the provinces of Macedonia, Dalmatia, and Epirus (see fig. 2).
    For about four centuries, Roman rule brought the Illyrian-populated lands economic and cultural advancement and ended most of the enervating clashes among local tribes. The Illyrian mountain clansmen retained local authority but pledged allegiance to the emperor and acknowledged the authority of his envoys. During a yearly holiday honoring the Caesars, the Illyrian mountaineers swore loyalty to the emperor and reaffirmed their political rights. A form of this tradition, known as the kuvend, has survived to the present day in northern Albania.
    The Romans established numerous military camps and colonies and completely latinized the coastal cities. They also oversaw the construction of aqueducts and roads, including the Via Egnatia, a famous military highway and trade route that led from Durrës through the Shkumbin River valley to Macedonia and Byzantium (later Constantinople --see Glossary). Copper, asphalt, and silver were extracted from the mountains. The main exports were wine, cheese, oil, and fish from Lake Scutari and Lake Ohrid. Imports included tools, metalware, luxury goods, and other manufactured articles. Apollonia became a cultural center, and Julius Caesar himself sent his nephew, later the Emperor Augustus, to study there.
    Illyrians distinguished themselves as warriors in the Roman legions and made up a significant portion of the Praetorian Guard. Several of the Roman emperors were of Illyrian origin, including Diocletian (284-305), who saved the empire from disintegration by introducing institutional reforms, and Constantine the Great (324-37)--who accepted Christianity and transferred the empire's capital from Rome to Byzantium, which he called Constantinople. Emperor Justinian (527-65)--who codified Roman law, built the most famous Byzantine church, the Hagia Sofia, and reextended the empire's control over lost territories- -was probably also an Illyrian.
    Christianity came to the Illyrian-populated lands in the first century A.D. Saint Paul wrote that he preached in the Roman province of Illyricum, and legend holds that he visited Durrës. When the Roman Empire was divided into eastern and western halves in A.D. 395, the lands that now make up Albania were administered by the Eastern Empire but were ecclesiastically dependent on Rome. In A.D. 732, however, a Byzantine emperor, Leo the Isaurian, subordinated the area to the patriarchate of Constantinople. For centuries thereafter, the Albanian lands became an arena for the ecclesiastical struggle between Rome and Constantinople. Most Albanians living in the mountainous north became Roman Catholic, while in the southern and central regions, the majority became Orthodox.

  9. #209
    Avatar von AulOn

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    Zitat Zitat von LouWeed Beitrag anzeigen
    quelle?


    hier mal was

    Armenia alba is one of the highest regions in the world...
    identical place-names between Albania and Caucasus:
    Albo-Arnauti -Caucasus- Arnauti
    Albo-Bushati - Caucasus-Bushati (also the name of an Albanian tribe)
    Albo-Baboti - Caucasus-Baboti
    Albo-Baka -Caucasus-Bako
    Albo-Ballagati - Caucasus-Balagati
    Albo-Ballaj,Balli - Caucasus- Bali
    Albo-Bashkimi - Caucasus-Bashkoi
    Albo-Bathore- Caucasus- Batharia
    Albo-Bater- Caucasus- Bataris
    Albo-Geg - Caucasus-Gegi, Gegeni, Geguti (Term used by Albanians in their language to denote their brethre north of the Shkumbi R.)
    Albo-Demir Kapia - Caucasus-Demir Kapia (Turkish term: "iron gates"; term by which Turks refered to the Caspian Sea or arch: Albanian Sea)
    Albo-Kish, Kisha... - Caucasus-Kish (Eight different toponyms in Albania begin with "kish")
    Albo-Kurata,Kuratem,Kurateni(villages)-Caucasus-Kura (river) (Nine different toponyms in Albania begin with "Kura")
    Albo-Luginasi - Caucasus-Lugini
    Albo-Rusani - Caucasus-Rusian
    Albo-Sheshani, Shoshani, Shashani - Caucasus-Shashani
    Albo-Sheshaj, Sheshi - Caucasus-Sheshleti
    Albo-Skalla - Caucasus-Skaleri
    Albo-Shiptari Shipyaki, Shkhepa, - Caucasus-Shkepi
    Albo-Shkoder - Caucasus-Shkeder, Shked, Shkoda
    Albo-Shekulli - Caucasus-Shekouli
    Albo-Skuraj - Caucasus-Skuria

    LouWeed, mit der Quelle disqualifizierst du dich selbst! Solche Quellen verwenden meistens verblendete Milosovic-Anhänger.

  10. #210
    Avatar von AulOn

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    origin of the Albanians: Information from Answers.com




    Origin of the Albanians





    Wikipedia: Origin of the Albanians
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    History of Albania
    This article is part of a series Origins Illyrians Illyricum (Roman province) Albania in the Middle Ages Albania under the Byzantine Empire Albania under the Bulgarian Empire Albania under the Serbian Empire Principality of Arbër Kingdom of Albania Principalities in Middle Ages League of Lezha Albania Veneta Ottoman Albania Albanian Pashaliks National Renaissance of Albania Independence The Albanian state Provisional Government of Albania Principality of Albania Albanian Republic Albanian Kingdom Axis Occupation Albania under Italy Albania under Nazi Germany Communist Albania Modern Post-Communist Albania Albania Albania Portal
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    Expulsion of Cham Albanians vde
    The origin of the Albanians has been for some time a matter of dispute among historians. Most of them conclude that they are descendants of populations of the prehistoric Balkans, such as the Illyrians, Dacians or Thracians. These peoples are themselves practically unknown, and are blend into one another in Thraco-Illyrian and Daco-Thracian contact zones even in antiquity.
    The Albanians first appear in historical records in Byzantine sources of the late 11th century. At this point, they are already fully Christianized and very little evidence of pre-Christian Albanian culture survives and Albanian mythology and folklore as it presents itself is notoriously syncretized from various sources, especially showing Greek influence.[1]
    Regarding the classification of the Albanian language, it forms a separate branch of Indo-European, belonging to the satem group, and its late attestation, the first records dating to the 15th century, makes it difficult for historical linguistics to make confident statements on its genesis.
    Studies in genetic anthropology suggest that the Albanians share the same ancestry as most other European peoples.[2]
    Contents

    [hide]



    Place of origin

    The place where the Albanian language was formed is uncertain, but analysis has suggested that it was in a mountainous region, rather than in a plain or seacoast[3]: while the words for plants and animals characteristic of mountainous regions are entirely original, the names for fish and for agricultural activities (such as ploughing) are borrowed from other languages[4].
    It can also be presumed that the Albanians did not live in Dalmatia, because the Latin influence over Albanian is of Eastern Romance origin, rather than of Dalmatian origin. This influence includes Latin words exhibiting idiomatic expressions and changes in meaning found only in Eastern Romance and not in other Romance languages. Adding to this the many words found in Romanian with Albanian cognates (see Eastern Romance substratum), it may be assumed that Romanians and Albanians lived in close proximity at one time.[4] Generally, the areas where this might have happened are considered to be regions varying from Transylvania, what is now Eastern Serbia (the region around Naissus and the Morava valley), Kosovo and Northern Albania.[5]
    However, most agricultural terms in Romanian are of Latin origin, but not the terms related to city activities — indicating that Romanians were an agricultural people in the low plains, as opposed to Albanians, who were originally shepherds in the highlands.
    Some scholars even explain the gap between the Bulgarian and Serbian languages by postulating an Albanian-Romanian buffer-zone east of the Morava river.[citation needed] Although an intermediary Serbian dialect exists, it was formed only later, after the Serbian expansion to the east.[citation needed]
    Another argument that sustains a northern origin of the Albanians is the relatively small number of words of Greek origin[6], even though Southern Illyria was neighboring the Classical Greek civilization and there were different Greek colonies such as Epidamnus and Apolonia along Illyrian coastline.

    Written sources


    Albani, tribe in ancient Illyria, from Alexander G. Findlay's Classical Atlas to Illustrate Ancient Geography, New York, 1849.



    Arbanon

    Main article: Albania (name)
    While the exonym Albania for the general region inhabited by the Albanians does hark back to the Roman era, and possibly an Illyrian tribe, the name was lost within the Albanian language, the Albanian endonym being shqiptar, from the term for the Albanian language, shqip, a derivation of the verb shqipoj "to speak clearly", perhaps ultimately a loan from Latin excipio.[7]
    In the 2nd century BC, the History of the World written by Polybius, mentions a city named Arbon in present day central Albania. The people who lived there were called Arbanios and Arbanitai. In the 1st century AD, Pliny mentions an Illyrian tribe named Olbonenses. In the 2nd century AD, Ptolemy, the geographer and astronomer from Alexandria, drafted a map of remarkable significance for the history of Illyria. This map shows the city of Albanopolis (located Northeast of Durrës). Ptolemy also mentions the Illyrian tribe named Albanoi, who lived around this city. In the 6th century AD, Stephanus of Byzantium in his important geographical dictionary entitled Ethnica (Εθνικά) mention a population called abroi from Adria Taulantii and a city in Illyria called Arbon, with its inhabitants called arbonios and arbonites.
    In the 12th to 13th centuries, Byzantine writers use the words Arbanon for a principality in the region of Kruja.

    Byzantine references to "Albanians"


    • In History written in 1079-1080, Byzantine historian Michael Attaliates referred to the Albanoi as having taken part in a revolt against Constantinople in 1043 and to the Arbanitai as subjects of the duke of Dyrrachium. It is disputed, however, whether that refers to Albanians in an ethnic sense.[8]
    • The earliest Serbian source mentioning "Albania" (Ar'banas') is a charter by Stefan Nemanja, dated 1198, which lists the region of Pilot (Pulatum) among the parts Nemanja conquered from Albania (ѡд Арьбанась Пилоть, "de Albania Pulatum").[9]
    • 1285 in Dubrovnik (Ragusa) a document states: "Audivi unam vocem clamantem in monte in lingua albanesca" (I heard a voice crying in the mountains in the Albanian language).[10] It is unclear, however, whether this sentence refers to the Albanian language (or to which one of its two dialects), or whether it denotes another language spoken in the geographical or political region of Albania, such as Slavic, Greek or Italian.
    • Arbanasi people are recorded as being 'half-believers' (non-Orthodox Christians) and speaking their own language in the Fragment of Origins of Nations between 1000-1018 by an anonymous in a Bulgarian text of the 11th century.[11]
    • Arbanitai of Arbanon are recorded in an account by Anna Comnena of the troubles in that region during the reign of her father Alexius I Comnenus (1081-1118) by the Normans.[12]


    Given names

    The Albanians were Christianised centuries before their first appearance in history, perhaps as early as in the 4th century. The earliest records of given names of Albanian individuals are found in Byzantine sources of the late 11th to 12th century. All Albanians in this period already bear unambiguously Christian names. The name of Komiskortes, an Albanian ally of the Byzantines in the Battle of Dyrrhachium (1081) is in fact a corrupt rendition of a Byzantine court title, κομης κορτης (from Latin comes curtis).
    Around 1200, the names of members of the ruling family of Arbanon are recorded as Progon (Προγονος), Gjin (Ιωαννης, i.e. John) and Demetrios (Δημητριος), all derived from Greek. In 1253, the vassall in Arbanos has a name of Slavic origin, Goulamos (from golem' "great").
    It is only in the mid 19th century national awakening and literary revival (Rilindja) that given names taken from the native Albanian vocabulary begin to replace the loaned Greek and Biblical names. Examples are mostly female given names, such as Lule "flower". This tendency becomes extreme in Communist Albania after 1944, where it was the regime's declared doctrine to oust Christian or Islamic given names. Ideologically acceptable names were listed in the Fjalor me emra njerëzish (1982). These could be native Albanian words like Flutur "butterfly", ideologically communist ones like Proletare, or "Illyrian" ones compiled from epigraphy, e.g. from the necropolis at Dyrrhachion excavated in 1958-60.

    Albanian endonym

    The word Shqiptar, by which Albanians today refer to themselves since the Ottoman times, was recorded for the first time in the 14th century, and it appears to have been a family name (Schipudar, Scapuder, Schepuder) in the city of Drivast.[citation needed]

    First attestation of the Albanian language

    The first document in the Albanian language (as spoken in the region around Mat) was recorded in 1462 by Paulus Angelus (whose name was later Albanized to Pal Engjëll), the archbishop of the catholic Archdiocese of Durazzo.[13]

    Paleo-Balkanic predecessors

    While Albanian (shqip) ethnogenesis clearly postdates the Roman era, an ultimate composition from prehistoric populations is widely held plausible, already because of the isolated position of the Albanian language within Indo-European.
    The three chief candidates considered by historians are Illyrian, Dacian, or Thracian, though there were other non-Greek groups in the ancient Balkans, including Paionians (who lived north of Macedon) and Agrianians. The Illyrian language and the Thracian language are generally considered to have been on different Indo-European branches. Not much is left of the old Illyrian, Dacian or Thracian tongues, making it difficult to match Albanian with them.
    There is debate whether the Illyrian language was a centum or a satem language. It is also uncertain whether Illyrians spoke a homogeneous language or rather a collection of different but related languages that were wrongly considered the same language by ancient writers. Some of those tribes, along with their language, are no longer considered Illyrian.[14][15] The same is sometimes said of the Thracian language. For example, based on the toponyms and other lexical items, Thracian and Dacian were probably different but related languages.
    In the early half of the 20th century, many scholars thought that Thracian and Illyrian were one language branch, but due to the lack of evidence, most linguists are skeptical and now reject this idea, and usually place them on different branches.
    The origins debate is often politically charged, and to be conclusive more evidence is needed. Such evidence unfortunately may not be easily forthcoming because of a lack of sources. Scholars are beginning to move away from a single-origin scenario of Albanian ethnogenesis. The area of what is now Macedonia and Albania was a melting pot of Thracian, Illyrian and Greek cultures in ancient times.[citation needed]

    Illyrian origin

    See also: Illyrians
    The theory that Albanians were related to the Illyrians was proposed for the first time by a German historian in 1774.[16] The scholars who advocate an Illyrian origin are numerous.[17][18][19][20] There are two variants of the theory: one is that the Albanians are the descendants of indigenous Illyrian tribes laying in what is now Albania.[21] The other is that the Albanians are the descendants of Illyrian tribes laying north of the Jireček Line and probably north or northeast of Albania.[22]
    The arguments for the Illyrian-Albanian connection have been as follows:[20][23]

    • The national name Albania is derived from Albanoi,[24][25][26] an Illyrian tribe mentioned by Ptolemy about 150 A.D.[27]
    • From what we know from the old Balkan populations territories (Greeks, Illyrians, Thracians, Dacians), Albanian language is spoken in the same region where Illyrian was spoken in ancient times.[28]
    • There is no evidence of any major migration into Albanian territory since the records of Illyrian occupation.[29]
    • Many of what remain as attested words to Illyrian have an Albanian explanation and also a number of Illyrian lexical items (toponyms, hydronyms, oronyms, anthroponyms, etc.) have been linked to Albanian.[30]
    • Borrowed words (eg Gk (NW) "device, instrument" mākhaná > *mokër "millstone" Gk (NW) drápanon > *drapër "sickle" etc) from Greek language date back before the Christian era[29] and are mostly of Doric dialect of Greek language,[31] which means that the ancestors of the Albanians were in Northwestern part of Ancient Greek civilization and probably borrowed them from Greek cities (Dyrrachium, Apollonia, etc) in the Illyrian territory, colonies which belonged to the Doric division of Greek, or from the contacts in Epirus area.
    • Borrowed words from Latin (eg Latin aurum > ar "gold", gaudium > gaz "gas" etc[32]) date back before the Christian era,[33][23] while Illyrians in the today's Albanian territory were the first from the old Balkan populations to be conquered by Romans in 229 - 167 B.C., Thracians were conquered in 45 A.D. and Dacians in 106 A.D.
    • The ancient Illyrian place-names of the region have achieved their current form following Albanian phonetic rules e.g. Durrachion > Durrës (with the Albanian initial accent) Aulona > Vlonë~Vlorë (with rhotacism) Scodra > Shkodra etc.[23][29][31][34]
    • The characteristics of the Albanian dialects Tosk and Geg[35] in the treatment of the native and loanwords from other languages, have lead to the conclusion that the dialectal split preceded the Slavic migration to the Balkans[36][37] which means that in that period (5th to 6th century AD) Albanians were occupying pretty much the same area around Shkumbin river[38] which straddled the Jirecek line.[23][39]

    To propagate the connection, the Albanian communist regime adopted a policy of naming people with "Illyrian" names.[40] The reverses of three Albanian coins depict Illyrian motives: an Illyrian helmet in the 50 lekë coin issued in 2003, king Gentius in the 50 lekë coin issued in 1996 and 2000, and queen Teuta in the 100 lekë coin issued in 2000.[41] Gentius is also depicted on the obverse of the 2000 lekë banknote, issued in 2008.[42]

    Arguments against Illyrian origin

    Recently, the theory of an Illyrian origin of the Albanians has been seriously challenged by linguists.[4]

    • The Illyrian tribe of the Albanoi and the town of Albanopolis (mentioned in Ptolemy's Geographia) could be located near Kruja in central Albania, but nothing proves a connection to the Albanians, who appear in the historical record in Byzantine documents of the 11th century. Moreover, by late antiquity, the ethnonym Illyrians was an archaism that had ceased to refer to a distinct Illyrians people (e.g. it was later used by Byzantine historian to refer to the Serbs). [43]
    • Although some Albanian toponyms descend from Illyrian, it was proven by one of the great specialists on the Balkan languages, Gustav Weigand, that the Albanian language itself is not of Illyrian stock. Many linguists have tried to link Albanian with Illyrian, but without clear results.[27]
    • The theory of an Illyrian origin for the Albanians is weakened by the lack of any Albanian names before the 12th century and the relative absence of Greek influence that would surely be present if the Albanians inhabited their homeland conitnuously since ancient times.[44] The number of Greek words borrowed in Albania is small; if the Albanians originated near modern-day Albania, there should be more.[45]
    • The lack of clear archaeological evidence for a continuous settlement of an Albanian-speaking population since Illyrian times. For example, while Albanians scholars maintain that the Komani-Kruja burial sites support the Illyrian-Albanian continuity theory, most scholars reject this and consider that the remains indicate a population of Romanized Illyrians who spoke a Romanic language.[43][46][47] It is unlikely that a pastoral population such as the proto-Albanians would have developed an urban civilization bearing many Roman and Byzantine characteristics in the early Middle Ages in an area that had been heavily Romanized. Recently, some Albanian archeologists have also been moving away from describing the Komani-Kruja culture as a proto-Albanian culture.[48]
    • According to linguist V. Georgiev, Illyrian toponyms from antiquity do not follow Albanian phonetic laws.[4]


    Thracian or Dacian origin


    Albanians in the 5th-10th centuries according to the Dacian theory.


    Aside from an Illyrian origin, a Dacian or Thracian origin is also hypothesized. There are a number of factors taken as evidence for a Dacian or Thracian origin of Albanians.
    The German linguist Gottfried Schramm (1994) suggests an origin of the Albanians in the Bessoi, a Thracian tribe that was Christianized as early as during the 4th century. Schramm argues that such an early Christianization would explain the otherwise surprising virtual absence of any traces of a pre-Christian pagan religion among the Albanians as they appear in history during the Late Middle Ages.[49] According to this theory, the Bessoi were deported en masse by the Byzantines at the beginning of the 9th century to central Albania for the purpose of fighting against the Bulgarians. In their new homeland, the ancestors of the Albanians took the geographic name Arbanon as their ethnic name and proceeded to assimilate local populations of Slavs, Greeks, and Romans.[50]
    Albanian shares several hundred [51] common words with Eastern Romance, these Eastern Romance words being part of the pre-Roman substrate (see: Eastern Romance substratum) and not loans;[citation needed] Albanian and Eastern Romance also share grammatical features (see Balkan language union) and phonological features, such as the common phonemes or the rhotacism of "n".[52]
    According to linguist Vladimir Georgiev, Latin loanwords into Albanian show East Balkan Latin (proto-Romanian) phonetics, rather than West Balkan (Dalmatian) phonetics[4]. Combined with the fact that the Romanian language contains several hundred words similar only to Albanian, Georgiev proposes the Albanian language formed between the 4th and 6th century in or near modern-day Romania, which was Dacian territory.[45] Georgiev suggests that Romanian is a fully Romanised Dacian language, whereas Albanian is only partly so.[53]
    Cities whose names follow Albanian phonetic laws - such as Shtip (Štip), Shkupi (Skopje) and Niš - lie in the areas once inhabited by Thracians, Dardani, and Paionians; however, Illyrians also inhabited or may have inhabited these regions, including Naissus.
    There are some close correspondences between Thracian and Albanian words.[54] The phonetics of the bulk of the Albanian lexicon are moreoever of Thracian origin.[43] However, as with Illyrian, most Dacian and Thracian words and names have not been closely linked with Albanian (v. Hemp). Also, many Dacian and Thracian placenames were made out of joined names (such as Dacian Sucidava or Thracian Bessapara; see List of Dacian cities and List of ancient Thracian cities), while the modern Albanian language does not allow this.[54]
    There are no records that indicate a migration of Dacians into present day Albania. However, Thracian tribes such as the Bryges were present in Albania near Durrës since before the Roman conquest (v. Hemp).[54] An argument against a Thracian origin (which does not apply to Dacian) is that most Thracian territory was on the Greek half of the Jirecek Line, aside from varied Thracian populations stretching from Thrace into Albania, passing through Paionia and Dardania and up into Moesia; it is considered that most Thracians were Hellenized in Thrace (v. Hoddinott) and Macedonia.
    Apart from the linguistic theory that Albanian is more akin to eastern Romance (i.e. Dacian substrate) than western Roman (with Illyrian substrate- such as Dalmatian), Georgiev also notes that marine words in Albanian are borrowed from other languages, suggesting that Albanians were not originally a coastal people (as the Illyrians were). The scarcity of Greek loan words also supports a Dacian theory - if Albanians originated in the region of Illyria there would surely be a heavy Greek influence.
    The Dacian theory could also be consistent with the known patterns of barbarian incursions. Although there is no documentation of an Albanian migration (in fact there is no documentation of Albanians per se until the 11th century) the Morava valley region adjacent to Dacia was most heavily affected by migrations of Goths and Slavs, and was moreover a natural invasion route[53]. Thus it would have been a region whose indigenous population would naturally have fled[53], for example, to the relative safety of mountainous northern Albania.

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