DYNASTIES OF MEDIEVAL RULERS
Erstellt von Legija, 17.12.2005, 11:37 Uhr · 16 Antworten · 1.712 Aufrufe
DYNASTIES OF MEDIEVAL RULERS
Members of the Serbian national dynasties were ruling over Serbia for almost 300 years, from 1168 to 1459. Since the very beginning they have accepted the Byzantine rulers ideology, according to which the social order on Earth should be the ideal copy of that in Heavens. Following analogy, the Byzantine emperor is God’s regent on Earth, and father of all people who surround him as members of an ideal political family. In accordance with the same classification, Serbian rulers were granted the title of Grand Zhupan, and later that of King. Therefore promotion of Serbia into empire at the time of Stefan Urosh IV Dushan Nemanyich was later interpreted as an anti-natural act, which provoked the punishment in terms of fall of the Serbian state. After the decline of the Serbian Empire, the later rulers bore only titles of princes and despots.
From 1168 to 1371 Serbia was ruled by founders of its political independence - the Nemanyich dynasty.
Since 1365 to 1395, a part of Serbia was ruled by the Mrnyavchevich Family.
From 1375 to 1427 the ruling dynasty was the Lazarevich family.
In 1427 the power to rule over Serbia came into hands of the members of the Brankovich family, who ruled until 1459.
In the year 1459, for less than three months, Serbia was ruled by Stefan
Tomashevich of the Bosnian dynasty Kotromanich.
THE NEMANYICH DYNASTY
The dynasty took its name after its founder Stefan Nemanya, the first independent Serbian ruler and the first Serbian saint. He was the youngest son of the Rashka Grand Zhupan Zavida. In the 60s of the 12th century he managed to push his brothers Tihomir, Stracimir and Miroslav into peripheral areas of the Rashka state, and take over his father’s title. Nemanya’s middle son and successor Stefan, the first Serbian crowned king, continued his father’s internal policy, never letting the descendants of other family branches get independence in the regions under their administration. Strong economic progress, in the first place in mining and trade, was characteristic for the reign of Stefan Urosh I. Strong cental administrative power is also characteristic for the reign of his successor Stefan Urosh II Milutin. In his time not only the ruler but his feudal lords as well showed tendencies toward conquering other territories. These tendencies were particularly distinct during the reign of Stefan Dushan who crowned his conquests by proclaiming the Patriarchate in 1345, and himself an emperor in 1346. During his reign the Statute Book was proclaimed, the codification of which was based on the codes of the Byzantine emperor Justinian. Dushan’s successor Urosh did not have the political talent of his predecessors. In the course of his reign many regions united by Emperor Dushan seceded. It resulted in decline of the Serbian Empire, and various powerful local rulers tried to establish their own dynasties. Deeply religious and devoted to Orthodoxy, all rulers of the Nemanyich dynasty were great donors, and erected all over Serbia many impressive monasteries and churches, such as Studenica, Djurdjevi Stupovi, Zhicha, Dechani, Grachanica, Milesheva, Sopochani . . . as well as the only Serbian monastery on Mount Athos - Chilandar. 8)
THE MRNYAVCHEVICH DYNASTY
The medieval feudal lords and dynasty Mrnyavchevich is known under that name from later sources, from the 15th century onwards. Unlike historical sources, the oral tradition often mentions them either as totally negative or totally positive characters. Brothers Vukashin and Uglyesha were portrayed as greedy feudal lords and usurpers, while Vukashin’s son Marko (the Prince) became the Serbian national hero. 8)
THE BRANKOVICH DYNASTY
When Prince Stefan Lazarus died in 1427, without a heir, he was succeeded by Djuradj Brankovich, on the basis of family relations. His reign was marked by constant hard fighting against the Turks. Thanks to his diplomatic talents, as well as the ability to take advantage of weaknesses of his rivals and seniors, the Hungarians and Turks, but above all to the strong economic position which ensured him the title of one of the richest men of Europe of the time, Djuradj managed to extend the independence of the Serbian state for a few more decades. After his death in 1456, his son Lazarus accessed the throne. He tried to follow his father’s policy, but was stopped by his sudden death in 1458. He left no male heirs behind.
THE KOTROMANICH DYNASTY
The Kotromanich dynasty ruled over Bosnia from the beginning of the 13th century till 1463. The Kotromanich Family linked to the Serbian ruling family at the close of the 13th century, by marriage of Stefan, son of the Bosnian Governor Tvrtko, to Elisabeth, daughter of the Serbian King Dragutin. Governor Tvrtko Kotromanich took advantage of this family relationship and got himself crowned by the "double wreath", a King of Bosnia and Serbia, in 1377.
The Kotromanich family restored their relationship with the Serbian ruling dynasty at the beginning of the second half of the 16th century. It happened when the crown-prince Stefan Tomashevich married Helen, daughter of the Serbian Despot Lazarus.
When Mehmet II came to the walls of Smederevo, the Kotromanich Family did not give any resistance, but started negotiations of surrendering the city. After the negotiation had been reached, the Bosnians were allowed to leave the fortress together with the newly appointed Despot and his wife. Smederevo was deserted on June 20, 1459, and the Turks entered it. It was the end of the Serbian despotic power. 8) 8) 8O 8)
THE LAZAREVICH FAMILY
At the time of reign of the last ruler of the Nemanyich Family – Urosh the Feeble - a few powerful feudal lords tried to found their own dynasties: Balshich, Voynovich-Altomanovich, Mrnyavchevich, Deyanovich, Rastislalich, Hrebelyanovich. The most powerful among them was Prince Lazarus Hrebelyanovich, who became their supreme lord about 1375. Lazarus Hrebelyanovich managed to unite many territories in the region of the Big Morava river basin. He acted as a mediator in reconciliation of the Serbian and Greek churches, who had been in schism ever since proclamation of the Serbian Patriarchate. He was killed in the Kosovo Field battle in 1389, commanding the Serbian army against the Turkish Sultan Mourat II.
Lazarus was succeeded by his son Stefan, who had a strong personality and will. Stefan was simultaneously Turkish and Hungarian vassal, and he managed to consolidate economic progress of the country, as well as to extend his property in Zeta, at the expense of the Bosnian state. After the battle of Angora, he got the despotic title from the Byzantine Emperor, and the Serbian state was a despotic state starting from that date. 8)
THE KARADJORDJEVICH DYNASTY
The dynasty Karadjordjevich is the last Serbian dynasty. Rulers of this dynasty originate from the national leader of the First Serbian Uprising in 1804, Djordje (george) Petrovich - Karadjordje. 8)
THE OBRENOVICH DYNASTY
The Obrenovich dynasty ruled over Serbia twice: first from 1815 to 1842, with three different Princes on the throne - Milosh, Milan and Michael; the second period lasted from 1858 to 1903, when Michael ruled again, then King Milan and eventually King Alexander. Rulers of this lineage originate from Milosh, one of the most distinguished leaders of the First Serbian Uprising.
Table of Rulers::
STEFAN NEMANJA Founder of Studenica and Chilandari (Mount Athos). Died as Monk Symeon in Chilandari, 1200. Grand Z"upan 1159-1196
STEFAN `THE FIRST CROWNED' Son of Stefan Nemanja and brother of S. Sava. Maried Eudocia, daughter of Byzantine Emperor Alexander III. Founder of Z"ic"a. King 1196-1228
RADOSLAV Son of Stefan `The First Crowned'. Added nartex and side chapels to Studenica. Died as Monk Jovan. King 1228-1234
VLADISLAV Brother of Radoslav. Founder of Miles"eva. King 1234-1243
UROS" I Brother of Vladislav. Founder of Sopoc"ani and Morac"a. Maried Hellen of Anjou (d. 1314), the founder of Gradac. Died as monk Symeon King 1243-1276
DRAGUTIN Son of Uros" I. Married daughter of Hungarian king Stefan V. Founder of Arilje. Died as Monk Theoktist, 1316. King 1276-1281
MILUTIN (UROS" II) Brother of Dragutin. Married Anne, daughter of the Bulgarian Tsar; and later Simonis, daughter of the Byzantine Emperor Andronicus II. Founder of many monasteries in Serbia and elsewhere, including Grac"anica; S. Djordje, Nagoric"ano; Banjska; Bogorodica Levis, Prizren; Archangels, Jerusalem; Holy Apostoles, Salonika. King 1282-1321
KONSTANTINE Son of Milutin. King 1321-1322.
DUS"AN (UROS" IV) Son of Uros" III. Maried Bulgarian Princess Helene. Founder of Arhandjeli, Prizren. King
UROS" V Son of Dus"an and last of the Nemayid dynasty. Tsar 1355-1371
SIMEON UROS" Brother of Dus"an. Founder of Meteora monasteries. King of Thessaly. 1356-1371
VUKAS"IN Guardian of Uros" V and father of Prince Marko. Founder of Arhanjeli, Prilep, and Marko monastery. King 1366-1371
LAZAR HREBELJANOVIC' Founder of Ravanica, and Lazarica at Krus"evac. His wife, Princess Milica, founded Ljubostinja. Died at Kossovo. Prince 1371-1389
STEFAN `VISOKI' (LAZAR II) Son of Lazar. Founder of Manasija, Kalenic', and NOva Pavlica. Last of Hrebeljanovic' dynasty. Despot 1389-1427
VUK BRANKOVIC' Son-in-law of Lazar. Founder of Rudenica. Ruler of Prizren 1389-1398
DJORDJE BRANKOVIC' Son of Vuk. Founder of fortress and church at Smederevo. Married Jelena, a Byzantine princess. Ruler of Serbia 1427-1456
LAZAR III Son of Djordje. Last of Brankovic' dynasty. Ruler of Serbia 1456-1458
STEFAN TOMASEVIC' Son-in-law of Lazar III. Bosnian Despot and last ruler of Serbia. 1458-1459
KARADJORDJE PETROVIC' Liberator and Leader 1804-1813
MILOS" OBRENOVIC' Liberator& Prince 1815-1839 1858-1860
MICHAEL OBRENOVIC' Son of Milos". Prince 1839-1842
LEXANDER KARADJORDJEVIC' Son of Karadjordje. Prince 1842-1858
MILAN OBRENOVIC' Cousin of Michael. Prince,and King 1868-1882 1882-1889
ALEXANDER I Son of Milan and last of the Obrenovic' dynasty. King. 1889-1903
PETER I Son of Alexander Karadjordjevic'. Founder of Topola. King. 1903-1921
ALEXANDER II Son of Peter. King. 1921-1934
PAUL Nephew of Peter. Prince Regent. 1934-1941
PETER II Son of Alexander II and the last of the Karadjordjevic' dynasty.King in exile 1941 1941-1945
8) 8) 8)
So wie ich sehe hast du auch ein paar Albaner veröffentlicht..Danke mein albanischer Halbbruder...für die Ehre und für denn Respekt..
DIch sollte man echt mal in ein Geschichtsseminar reinstecken. Lebend würdest du da nicht mehr rauskommen.
Zitat von Albanesi2
Von Kryzat im Forum PC, Internet, Games
Letzter Beitrag: 03.02.2009, 23:29