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DYNASTIES OF MEDIEVAL RULERS

Erstellt von Gast829627, 17.12.2005, 11:37 Uhr · 16 Antworten · 1.856 Aufrufe

  1. #1
    Gast829627

    DYNASTIES OF MEDIEVAL RULERS






    Members of the Serbian national dynasties were ruling over Serbia for almost 300 years, from 1168 to 1459. Since the very beginning they have accepted the Byzantine rulers ideology, according to which the social order on Earth should be the ideal copy of that in Heavens. Following analogy, the Byzantine emperor is God’s regent on Earth, and father of all people who surround him as members of an ideal political family. In accordance with the same classification, Serbian rulers were granted the title of Grand Zhupan, and later that of King. Therefore promotion of Serbia into empire at the time of Stefan Urosh IV Dushan Nemanyich was later interpreted as an anti-natural act, which provoked the punishment in terms of fall of the Serbian state. After the decline of the Serbian Empire, the later rulers bore only titles of princes and despots.

    From 1168 to 1371 Serbia was ruled by founders of its political independence - the Nemanyich dynasty.
    Since 1365 to 1395, a part of Serbia was ruled by the Mrnyavchevich Family.
    From 1375 to 1427 the ruling dynasty was the Lazarevich family.
    In 1427 the power to rule over Serbia came into hands of the members of the Brankovich family, who ruled until 1459.
    In the year 1459, for less than three months, Serbia was ruled by Stefan
    Tomashevich of the Bosnian dynasty Kotromanich.





    THE NEMANYICH DYNASTY







    The dynasty took its name after its founder Stefan Nemanya, the first independent Serbian ruler and the first Serbian saint. He was the youngest son of the Rashka Grand Zhupan Zavida. In the 60s of the 12th century he managed to push his brothers Tihomir, Stracimir and Miroslav into peripheral areas of the Rashka state, and take over his father’s title. Nemanya’s middle son and successor Stefan, the first Serbian crowned king, continued his father’s internal policy, never letting the descendants of other family branches get independence in the regions under their administration. Strong economic progress, in the first place in mining and trade, was characteristic for the reign of Stefan Urosh I. Strong cental administrative power is also characteristic for the reign of his successor Stefan Urosh II Milutin. In his time not only the ruler but his feudal lords as well showed tendencies toward conquering other territories. These tendencies were particularly distinct during the reign of Stefan Dushan who crowned his conquests by proclaiming the Patriarchate in 1345, and himself an emperor in 1346. During his reign the Statute Book was proclaimed, the codification of which was based on the codes of the Byzantine emperor Justinian. Dushan’s successor Urosh did not have the political talent of his predecessors. In the course of his reign many regions united by Emperor Dushan seceded. It resulted in decline of the Serbian Empire, and various powerful local rulers tried to establish their own dynasties. Deeply religious and devoted to Orthodoxy, all rulers of the Nemanyich dynasty were great donors, and erected all over Serbia many impressive monasteries and churches, such as Studenica, Djurdjevi Stupovi, Zhicha, Dechani, Grachanica, Milesheva, Sopochani . . . as well as the only Serbian monastery on Mount Athos - Chilandar. 8)

  2. #2
    Gast829627




    THE MRNYAVCHEVICH DYNASTY


    The medieval feudal lords and dynasty Mrnyavchevich is known under that name from later sources, from the 15th century onwards. Unlike historical sources, the oral tradition often mentions them either as totally negative or totally positive characters. Brothers Vukashin and Uglyesha were portrayed as greedy feudal lords and usurpers, while Vukashin’s son Marko (the Prince) became the Serbian national hero. 8)

  3. #3
    Gast829627





    THE BRANKOVICH DYNASTY


    When Prince Stefan Lazarus died in 1427, without a heir, he was succeeded by Djuradj Brankovich, on the basis of family relations. His reign was marked by constant hard fighting against the Turks. Thanks to his diplomatic talents, as well as the ability to take advantage of weaknesses of his rivals and seniors, the Hungarians and Turks, but above all to the strong economic position which ensured him the title of one of the richest men of Europe of the time, Djuradj managed to extend the independence of the Serbian state for a few more decades. After his death in 1456, his son Lazarus accessed the throne. He tried to follow his father’s policy, but was stopped by his sudden death in 1458. He left no male heirs behind.

    8)

  4. #4
    Gast829627




    THE KOTROMANICH DYNASTY

    The Kotromanich dynasty ruled over Bosnia from the beginning of the 13th century till 1463. The Kotromanich Family linked to the Serbian ruling family at the close of the 13th century, by marriage of Stefan, son of the Bosnian Governor Tvrtko, to Elisabeth, daughter of the Serbian King Dragutin. Governor Tvrtko Kotromanich took advantage of this family relationship and got himself crowned by the "double wreath", a King of Bosnia and Serbia, in 1377.

    The Kotromanich family restored their relationship with the Serbian ruling dynasty at the beginning of the second half of the 16th century. It happened when the crown-prince Stefan Tomashevich married Helen, daughter of the Serbian Despot Lazarus.

    When Mehmet II came to the walls of Smederevo, the Kotromanich Family did not give any resistance, but started negotiations of surrendering the city. After the negotiation had been reached, the Bosnians were allowed to leave the fortress together with the newly appointed Despot and his wife. Smederevo was deserted on June 20, 1459, and the Turks entered it. It was the end of the Serbian despotic power. 8) 8) 8O 8)

  5. #5
    Gast829627




    THE LAZAREVICH FAMILY

    At the time of reign of the last ruler of the Nemanyich Family – Urosh the Feeble - a few powerful feudal lords tried to found their own dynasties: Balshich, Voynovich-Altomanovich, Mrnyavchevich, Deyanovich, Rastislalich, Hrebelyanovich. The most powerful among them was Prince Lazarus Hrebelyanovich, who became their supreme lord about 1375. Lazarus Hrebelyanovich managed to unite many territories in the region of the Big Morava river basin. He acted as a mediator in reconciliation of the Serbian and Greek churches, who had been in schism ever since proclamation of the Serbian Patriarchate. He was killed in the Kosovo Field battle in 1389, commanding the Serbian army against the Turkish Sultan Mourat II.

    Lazarus was succeeded by his son Stefan, who had a strong personality and will. Stefan was simultaneously Turkish and Hungarian vassal, and he managed to consolidate economic progress of the country, as well as to extend his property in Zeta, at the expense of the Bosnian state. After the battle of Angora, he got the despotic title from the Byzantine Emperor, and the Serbian state was a despotic state starting from that date. 8)

  6. #6
    Gast829627




    THE KARADJORDJEVICH DYNASTY

    The dynasty Karadjordjevich is the last Serbian dynasty. Rulers of this dynasty originate from the national leader of the First Serbian Uprising in 1804, Djordje (george) Petrovich - Karadjordje. 8)

  7. #7
    Gast829627



    THE OBRENOVICH DYNASTY

    The Obrenovich dynasty ruled over Serbia twice: first from 1815 to 1842, with three different Princes on the throne - Milosh, Milan and Michael; the second period lasted from 1858 to 1903, when Michael ruled again, then King Milan and eventually King Alexander. Rulers of this lineage originate from Milosh, one of the most distinguished leaders of the First Serbian Uprising.
    8)

  8. #8
    Gast829627
    Table of Rulers::

    STEFAN NEMANJA Founder of Studenica and Chilandari (Mount Athos). Died as Monk Symeon in Chilandari, 1200. Grand Z"upan 1159-1196


    STEFAN `THE FIRST CROWNED' Son of Stefan Nemanja and brother of S. Sava. Maried Eudocia, daughter of Byzantine Emperor Alexander III. Founder of Z"ic"a. King 1196-1228



    RADOSLAV Son of Stefan `The First Crowned'. Added nartex and side chapels to Studenica. Died as Monk Jovan. King 1228-1234


    VLADISLAV Brother of Radoslav. Founder of Miles"eva. King 1234-1243


    UROS" I Brother of Vladislav. Founder of Sopoc"ani and Morac"a. Maried Hellen of Anjou (d. 1314), the founder of Gradac. Died as monk Symeon King 1243-1276



    DRAGUTIN Son of Uros" I. Married daughter of Hungarian king Stefan V. Founder of Arilje. Died as Monk Theoktist, 1316. King 1276-1281



    MILUTIN (UROS" II) Brother of Dragutin. Married Anne, daughter of the Bulgarian Tsar; and later Simonis, daughter of the Byzantine Emperor Andronicus II. Founder of many monasteries in Serbia and elsewhere, including Grac"anica; S. Djordje, Nagoric"ano; Banjska; Bogorodica Levis, Prizren; Archangels, Jerusalem; Holy Apostoles, Salonika. King 1282-1321



    KONSTANTINE Son of Milutin. King 1321-1322.


    DUS"AN (UROS" IV) Son of Uros" III. Maried Bulgarian Princess Helene. Founder of Arhandjeli, Prizren. King

    and Tsar
    1331-1346 1346-1355





    UROS" V Son of Dus"an and last of the Nemayid dynasty. Tsar 1355-1371



    SIMEON UROS" Brother of Dus"an. Founder of Meteora monasteries. King of Thessaly. 1356-1371



    VUKAS"IN Guardian of Uros" V and father of Prince Marko. Founder of Arhanjeli, Prilep, and Marko monastery. King 1366-1371



    LAZAR HREBELJANOVIC' Founder of Ravanica, and Lazarica at Krus"evac. His wife, Princess Milica, founded Ljubostinja. Died at Kossovo. Prince 1371-1389




    STEFAN `VISOKI' (LAZAR II) Son of Lazar. Founder of Manasija, Kalenic', and NOva Pavlica. Last of Hrebeljanovic' dynasty. Despot 1389-1427




    VUK BRANKOVIC' Son-in-law of Lazar. Founder of Rudenica. Ruler of Prizren 1389-1398



    DJORDJE BRANKOVIC' Son of Vuk. Founder of fortress and church at Smederevo. Married Jelena, a Byzantine princess. Ruler of Serbia 1427-1456




    LAZAR III Son of Djordje. Last of Brankovic' dynasty. Ruler of Serbia 1456-1458



    STEFAN TOMASEVIC' Son-in-law of Lazar III. Bosnian Despot and last ruler of Serbia. 1458-1459








    TURKISH PASHALIK







    KARADJORDJE PETROVIC' Liberator and Leader 1804-1813







    MILOS" OBRENOVIC' Liberator& Prince 1815-1839 1858-1860



    MICHAEL OBRENOVIC' Son of Milos". Prince 1839-1842

    1860-1868



    LEXANDER KARADJORDJEVIC' Son of Karadjordje. Prince 1842-1858



    MILAN OBRENOVIC' Cousin of Michael. Prince,and King 1868-1882 1882-1889



    ALEXANDER I Son of Milan and last of the Obrenovic' dynasty. King. 1889-1903


    PETER I Son of Alexander Karadjordjevic'. Founder of Topola. King. 1903-1921


    ALEXANDER II Son of Peter. King. 1921-1934


    PAUL Nephew of Peter. Prince Regent. 1934-1941


    PETER II Son of Alexander II and the last of the Karadjordjevic' dynasty.King in exile 1941 1941-1945



    8) 8) 8)

  9. #9

    Registriert seit
    07.05.2005
    Beiträge
    4.214
    So wie ich sehe hast du auch ein paar Albaner veröffentlicht..Danke mein albanischer Halbbruder...für die Ehre und für denn Respekt..

  10. #10
    Avatar von Sousuke-Sagara

    Registriert seit
    30.08.2005
    Beiträge
    7.770
    Zitat Zitat von Albanesi2
    So wie ich sehe hast du auch ein paar Albaner veröffentlicht..Danke mein albanischer Halbbruder...für die Ehre und für denn Respekt..
    DIch sollte man echt mal in ein Geschichtsseminar reinstecken. Lebend würdest du da nicht mehr rauskommen.

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