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Griechischer Nationalfeiertag - 25η Μαρτίου 1821

Erstellt von ΠΑΟΚ1926, 25.03.2009, 11:43 Uhr · 197 Antworten · 20.715 Aufrufe

  1. #131
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  2. #132
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    Markos Botsaris

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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    For other uses, see Botsaris (disambiguation).
    Markos Botsaris
    Μάρκος Μπότσαρης c. 1788 – August 21, 1823 Place of birth Souli (Epirus), Ottoman Empire Place of death Kefalovryso Resting place Messolonghi Allegiance France (1807-1814)
    United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1814-1815)
    Revolutionary Greece (1821-1823) Years of service 1807-1823 Rank Maréchal-des-logis of the Albanian regiment of the French army Battles/wars Greek War of Independence:
    First Siege of Messolonghi
    Battle of Peta
    Battle of Karpenisi Markos Botsaris (Greek: Μάρκος Μπότσαρης, c. 1788 – 21 August 1823) was a Souliote captain[1] and a hero of the War of Greek Independence. Markos Botsaris is among the most revered national heroes in Greece.
    Contents

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    [edit] Early life

    Botsaris was born into one of the leading clans of the Souliotes, in Epirus.[2] He was the second son of captain Kitsos Botsaris, who was murdered in Arta in 1809 under the orders of Ali Pasha. The Botsaris clan came from the village of Dragani (today Ambelia), near Paramythia.
    [edit] French Army and Ottoman Army

    In 1803, after the capture of Souli by Ali Pasha, Botsaris and the remnants of the Souliotes crossed over to the Ionian Islands, where he served in the Albanian regiment of the French army for 11 years and became one the regiment's officers.[3]
    In 1814, he joined the Greek patriotic society known as the Filiki Eteria. In 1820, with other Souliots, he came back to Epirus and fought against Ali Pasha in the Ottoman army at the Siege of Ioannina, but soon the Souliotes changed side and fought the Ottoman army with the troops of Ali Pasha, in exchange of their former region, the Souli.
    [edit] Greek War of Independence


    Flag of Markos Botsaris depicting Saint George and with the words: Freedom-Religion-Fatherland in Greek.


    In 1821, Botsaris made common cause with the Greeks against the Ottoman Empire. He and other Souliot captains, including Kitsos Tzavelas, Notis Botsaris, Lampros Veikos, and Giotis Danglis only enlisted fellow Souliot kin in to their bands.[1] At the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence, he distinguished himself by his courage, tenacity and skill as a partisan leader in the fighting in western Greece, and was conspicuous in the defence of Missolonghi during the first siege of the city (1822–1823).
    On the night of 21 August 1823 he led the celebrated attack on Karpenisi by 350 Souliots, against around 1,000 Ottoman troops who formed the vanguard of the army with which Mustai Pasha was advancing to reinforce the besiegers. Botsaris managed to take Mustai Pasha as a prisoner during the raid,[citation needed] but he was shot in the head and killed in battle by Llesh i Zi, an Albanian from Mirditë.[4]
    [edit] Family and Companions

    Many of his family members became key figures of the Greek political establishment. Markos' brother Kostas (Constantine) Botsaris, who also fought at Karpenisi and completed the victory, lived on to become a respected Greek general and parliamentarian in the Greek kingdom.[5] He died in Athens on 13 November 1853. Markos's son, Dimitrios Botsaris, born in 1813, was three times minister of war during the reigns of Otto of Greece and George I of Greece. He died in Athens on 17 August 1870. His daughter, Katerina "Rosa" Botsari, was in the service of Queen Amalia of Greece.
    Markos' son, Dimitrios Botsaris became three times Minister of War of Greece, under Kings Otto and George I.[6]
    Evangelis Zappas, the renowned benefactor and founder of the modern Olympic Games, was the aide-de-camp and close friend of Markos Botsaris.[7]
    [edit] Legacy

    Many Philhellenes visiting Greece had admired Botsaris' courage and numerous poets wrote poems about him. American poet Fitz-Greene Halleck wrote a poem entitled Marco Bozzaris,[8] Juste Olivier also wrote an award-winning poem for him, in 1825. His memory is still celebrated in popular ballads in Greece.
    Botsaris is also widely considered to be the author[9] of a Greek-Albanian lexicon written in Corfu in 1809, at the insistence of François Pouqueville, Napoleon Bonaparte's general consul at the court of Ali Pasha in Ioannina. The dictionary is of importance for the knowledge of the extinct Souliot dialect.[10] However, although the book is known as the Botsaris dictionary, scholar Xhevat Lloshi has argued in several works that Botsaris couldn't have possibly written that dictionary by himself, both because of his young age, and because of a note of Puqueville that clearly says that the dictionary was drafted under the dictation of Marko's father, uncle, and future father-in-law.[11]
    In Greek music, there are various folk songs dedicated to Botsaris, like a Tsamiko from Central Greece, named Song of Markos Botsaris (Greek: του Μάρκου Μπότσαρη),[12] and from the Greek minority of southern Albania (Northern Epirus) (Καημένε Μάρκο Μπότσαρη).[13] In Albanian music (Albanian: Marko Boçari)[14][15] there is a polyphonic song of the 19th century titled Song of Marko Boçari from Suli (Albanian: Kënga e Marko Boçarit nga Suli) lamenting his death.[16]
    Botsaris was depicted on the reverse of the Greek 50 lepta coin of 1976-2001.[17] He often adorns posters in Greek classrooms, government offices, and military barracks, as a member of the Greek pantheon of national heroes.

  3. #133
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  4. #134
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  5. #135
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    This article does not cite any references or sources.
    Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2009)
    Papaflessas (Grigorios Dikaios).


    Papaflessas (1788–1825), born Gregory Flessas, was a Greek patriot, priest, and government official of the old Flessas Family. The word papa in the name "Papaflessas" indicates his status as a cleric since the word means "priest" in Greek. He was ordained to the highest position of the priesthood, Archimandrites, in 1819. He served as Minister of Internal Affairs and Chief of Police in the government of Alexander Mavrocordatos. Papaflessas was killed during the Battle of Maniaki on May 20, 1825, fighting against the forces of Ibrahim Pasha at Maniaki, Messinia.
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    [edit] Early life

    Gregory "Papaflessas" Dikaios or Flessas or Flesias (Gregorios was his monastic name), was born in 1788 in the village of Poliani in Messinia. His father was Demetrios G. Flessas and his mother, the second wife of Demitrios, was Constantina Andronaiou from Dimitsana. In 1809, he attended school at the renowned school of Dimitsana, from whence many Greek national heroes graduated. While in school, he published a satire and pinned it on the door of Demetsana Pasha (the Turkish local governor at the time) signing it "Gregorios PHOS Kalamios". Realizing he was in danger from his action he was sent in 1815 to become a priest or monk, taking the ecclesiastical name of Gregorios Flessas or Papaflessas. For a short time, he served in this capacity in the monastery of Velanidia, situated outside of the city of Kalamata, Messinia.
    [edit] Clergy

    Gregorios was argumentative and defiant by nature and frequently at odds with his ecclesiastical superiors. Further, he was angry toward the Ottoman Turks because of family members killed by them. He also blessed a marriage of Mr. Zervas with his niece who was engaged to another man. At the time, engagement was equal to marriage and it was punishable by death if the engagement was broken. He was asked to leave the monastery of Velanidia.
    In April 1816, he moved to the monastery of Regkitsa, located between Leontari and Mystras. He soon argued with his superiors and the monastery's administration. He also came into conflict with a local Turkish authority over the boundaries of the monastery property and even used armed men to protect his claims. This eventually was settled by court in Tripolitsa with the court finding in Papaflessas' and the monastery's favour. This angered the Turkish official who told the authorities that Papaflessas was a revolutionary and was arming the "ragiades" (Greeks) against the Turks. The Tripolitsa authorities sentenced Papaflessas to death and sent soldiers to the monastery to arrest and execute him. Armed Poliani fighters delayed the soldiers and Papaflessas were able to leave his homeland, saying as he did so that he would return either a Bishop or a Pasha and deal with them.
    Papaflessas went to the island of Zakynthos, a haven for Greeks from the mainland who were under death sentence by the Turks. He obtained a reference letter from the Archbishop of Christianoupolis (Arcadia Kyparissia). While traveling by sea to Constantinople, Papaflessas was shipwrecked on Mount Athos during which the seal on his letter of recommendation broke. Reading the letter he was surprised to find that it called him dishonest, immoral and untrustworthy, causing him to discard the letter.
    He arrived in Constantinople with the goal of studying Ancient Greek and theology and to become an Archbishop in the Patriarxeio of Agia Sofia. While studying Greek and the Periklis harangue, he also started meeting prominent "patriots". Because he was under death sentence by the Turks, and his reputation from Peloponnisos, he used the name "Dikaios". He soon joined the secret organization Filiki Eteria with the code name "Armodios" (A. M.) and the number five (5).
    In 1819, Gregorios was ordained to the highest priesthood position, Archimandrites, a rank next to the Bishop, by Patriarch Gregorios V of Constantinople and he was given the ecclesiastical “officio of Dikaios” (the Ecumenical Patriarch's representative), in order to be able to move freely in the Moldovlachia area and not to be bothered by the Turks. Papaflessas was sent to the northern part of the Ottoman Empire to inspire and spread hope among his countrymen for the nation's independence from the Turks.
    [edit] Action in Resistance

    Returning to Constantinople from his successful mission Papaflessas again came to the attention of the Turkish authorities and had to flee. At the end of 1820, he sailed to Kydonia of Asia Minor and catechised all scholars of the Big School (as it was called there) while awaiting the arrival of war supplies from Smyrna. From Smyrna he received military supplies and the assurance of additional ammunition if needed.
    Papaflessas traveled to several areas seeking support for a revolution against the Ottoman Empire. At the Saint George monastery he called a meeting of Greek authorities and High Priests to discuss if the time was right to start the a revolution. After heated arguments the meeting was postponed for a later time in the monastery of Agia Lavra.
    In January 1821 meetings took place with Papaflessas recounting his supplies and assurances of support coming from Russia. Concerns about the practicalities of war and the uncertainty of the promises of military support lead the other participants to propose to secretly jail Flessas in the monastery of Agia Lavra in order to avoid problems for the nation. But Papaflessas had armed supporters and no one dared arrest him. The synod decided to get further information and the opinion of neighbouring countries before starting a revolution.
    Flessas' problem was with the upper class (landowners) in the villages and municipalities, including the top echelon of the clergy, who did not trust Papaflessas, and his mission was received with a great deal of scepticism and fear. He felt safer to approach first farmers and peasants and the poor class of people who were easily magnetized by his speeches looked upon him as the messiah of their freedom.
    After the meeting he went to Kalavryta and met with Nikolaos Souliotis and Asimakis Skaltsas in order for them to write a letter in the first 10 days of March 1821 to Oikonomos Eliopoulos. Then he retreated to Kalyvia Kalamata waiting for news from Souliotis and Skaltsas and the arrival in Almyros, a small port near Kalamata, of the boat with the war supplies. From Kalyvia he went secretly to Gardikion Amfeias near his hometown Poliani and learned that the small boat of Mexis Poriotis arrived in Almyros. Papaflessas immediately called his brothers.
    In March 1821, he received news the ship with military supplies had arrived. He gathered about 400 men with mules and donkeys from the Poliani area and went to Almyros Kalamata. In order to unload the boat they had to have the authorization of the area's harbourmaster, the famous Mavromichalis, who was in the pay of the Turks security force. The harbourmaster demanded a large bribe to cover up what the Greeks were unloading.
    Papaflessas sent 45,000 grosia to Mavromichalis who accepted it but still did not sign the proper papers. He wanted half of the supplies in the boat to have them as reserves to fight the Greeks when they start the revolution against the Turks. This was agreed to and the supplies were transported to the monastery of Velanidia, where Papaflessas served as a monk, summoning prominent "kleftes" chieftains from the area. By purpose or accident some of the gunpowder was dropped at a local well and the next day the stablemen of the local Pasha found and reported it. The Pasha summoned all the prominent Greeks and clergy from the Kalamata area and jailed them.
    Papaflessas arranged his men to cover various strategic positions in the area. When a Turkish sympathizer tried to leave the city he was killed, starting the war of Independence on March 21, 1821. In Mani a gathering of the captains of the rebels had decided to start the revolution on March 25, 1821, but received news on the 22nd that the fighting had already begun. The Greek War of Independence officially started on March 25, 1821, and brought a great change to the Church of the free kingdom. The clergy had taken a leading part in the revolution.
    [edit] Papaflessas during the Revolution (1821–1825)

    In 1823, Papaflessas was named the Minister of Internal Affairs and the Chief of Police by the government of Prince Alexander Mavrocordato under the name Gregorios Dikaios, the name he had when was in Filiki Etairia. He instituted many reforms, established the mail system and built schools in various towns. He created the title of Inspector General for schools and he was the first one to establish a "political convictions certificate" to be given to the friends of the Government. He took part in many battles against the Turks and he sided with the government when the civil war started in 1824. He took part in the campaign in Messinia and the rest of the Peloponnese to suppress the rebels against the Government. During the civil war, he was initially on Theodoros Kolokotronis' side, but later switched sides due to his personal ambitions.
    When Ibrahim Pasha invaded the Peloponnese in 1825 (with an army consisted mostly by Egyptians), Papaflessas was still Minister of Internal Affairs. Realizing the great danger the nation was facing with the Ibrahim's invasion, he demanded the government grant amnesty to Kolokotronis and other political prisoners. This demand was refused and he appeared before the Executive Branch and Parliament to tell them he would go to Messinia alone to organize a resistance against Ibrahim, determined to return victorious or die in the battlefield.
    Papaflessas gathered 3,000 poorly armed men and went to the province of Pylia, Messinia, searching for the best spot to face Ibrahim's army coming out of the city of Pylos. He selected the hills of Maniaki in order for him to have a better view of the enemy's movements and there Papaflessas established three lines of defence. On June 1, 1825, Ibrahim's forces led by well-trained French officers attacked Papaflessas' defence lines. Most of the Greek troops lost their nerve, abandoned their positions, and fled. Papaflessas continued to fight the Egyptians with a small force of 800-1000 men loyal to him and his cause.
    Papaflessas knew that in choosing to face Ibrahim he would die on the battlefield. Papaflessas's defenses were ultimately broken by the heavy bombardment of Ibrahim's artillery and the repeated attacks of his infantry and cavalry. Fierce hand-to-hand fighting ended with the death of the last defender.
    After Papaflessa's death from a bullet in the chest, Ibrahim ordered that his body be cleaned of blood and dirt and tied to a tree. After a few minutes of looking at his foe, Ibrahim walked up to the corpse and kissed it on the cheek as a sign of extreme respect. In speaking of Papaflessas after his death, it is said that Ibrahim told his officers: "If Greece had ten heroes like him, it would not have been possible for me to undertake the military campaign against the Peloponnese".

  6. #136
    Kelebek
    Stolz bin ich darauf, dass meine Ahnen nicht so respektlos gegenüber Fahnen anderer Völker waren, weil diese die Freiheit, Geschichte und Kultur dieses Landes widerspiegeln. Atatürk hat es vorgemacht, wir führen es fort. Aber das zeigt mal wieder die bedauernswerte Entwicklung in der griechischen Gesellschaft.

    Sorry für Off Topic, bin auch wieder weg.

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    Theodoros Kolokotronis
    Θεόδωρος Κολοκοτρώνης April 3, 1770(1770-04-03) – February 4, 1843(1843-02-04) (aged 72) Nickname O Geros tou Morea
    Ο Γέρος του Μοριά Place of birth Ramavouni, Morea, Ottoman Empire Place of death Athens, Greece Resting place 1st Cemetery, Athens Allegiance Greece Rank Field Marshal Theodoros Kolokotronis (Greek: Θεόδωρος Κολοκοτρώνης) (3 April 1770 – 4 February 1843) was a Greek Field Marshal and one of the leaders of the Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire.
    Kolokotronis' greatest success was the defeat of the Ottoman army under Mahmud Dramali Pasha at Dervenakia in 1822. In 1825, he was appointed commander-in-chief of the Greek forces in the Peloponnese. Today Kolokotronis is among the most revered of the protagonists of the War of Independence.
    Contents

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    [edit] Early life

    Kolokotronis was born at Ramavouni in Messenia, and grew up in Libovitsi in Arcadia. His father, Constantine Kolokotronis, took part in an armed rebellion which was supported by Catherine the Great of Russia, but was killed in an engagement along with two of his brothers George and Harry.[citation needed] Theodoros joined the ranks of a Peloponnesian guerrilla band, and by age fifteen was the leader (kapetanios, which means "captain") of his own group. He had a brief stint at sea as a corsair, then in 1805 he took service on a series of ships in the Russian fleet in the Russo-Turkish War. After 1810 he served in a corps of Greek infantry in British service on Zakynthos, then a British possession, and was awarded the brevet rank of brigadier for his service against the French. From his service in the regular Russian and British forces, Kolokotronis gained valuable insights that he would later use in his career.
    [edit] War of Independence


    The Palamidi Castle at Nafplion.


    [edit] Outbreak

    Kolokotronis returned to the mainland just prior to the outbreak of the war (officially, 25 March 1821) and formed a confederation of irregular Moreot klepht bands. These he tried to train and organize into something resembling a modern army. In May, he was named archistrategos or Marshal Commander-in-Chief. He was already 50 years old by this time, a fact which contributed to his sobriquet O Geros tou Morea or "The Elder of Moreas," whereby Morea was another name describing the Peloponnese. Kolokotronis' first action was the defense of Valtetsi, the village near Tripoli where his army was mustering.
    [edit] Nafplion

    He next commanded Greek troops in the siege of the coastal town of Nafplion. He took the port, and the Turkish garrison in the town's twin citadels was running low on supplies, but the disorganized Greek provisional government at Argos, just to the north, could not complete negotiations for its surrender before a large Ottoman force began marching southward to crush the rebels. Panicked, government officials abandoned Argos and began evacuations by sea at Nafplion. Only an under-strength battalion under Demetrios Ypsilantis remained to hold Larissa castle, the fortress of Argos.

    Statue of Kolokotronis at Dervenakia.


    [edit] As liberator

    Kolokotronis gathered the klephts together to march to the relief of Ypsilantis. This was quite a feat in itself, considering the near-collapse of the government and the notoriously quarrelsome nature of the klephtic bands. Even the troublesome Souliotes lent a hand. The Ottoman army from the north commanded by Mahmud Dramali Pasha, after taking Corinth, had marched to the plain of Argos. The castle of Larissa was an excellent position, commanding the whole plain. To leave such a stronghold straddling Turkish supply lines was far too dangerous. Dramali would have to reduce the fortress before moving on. Scaling the cliffs, breaching the castle's stout walls, and overcoming its resolute defenders would be no easy task.
    Yet, there was one weakness Dramali was unaware of: Larissa, unlike the famous Acropolis in Athens, had no spring and consequently fresh water had to be supplied from cisterns. Unfortunately for the Greeks, it was July and no rains were falling to fill the cisterns. Ypsilantis bluffed the Turks as long as he could, but towards the end of the month had to sneak his men out in the middle of the night. Dramali's men plundered the castle the next day, and he was now free to march them toward the coast to resupply. (The Greeks had pursued a scorched earth policy, and the large Ottoman force was eating through its food supplies rather quickly). Ypsilantis' defense had bought Kolokotronis and the klephts valuable time.
    To his dismay, Dramali found himself cut off from his supply fleet, which had intended to land at Nafplio but was successfully blockaded by the Greek fleet under Admiral Andreas Miaoulis[citation needed]. Dramali reluctantly decided upon a retreat toward Corinth through the Dervenaki Pass, through which he had just come unmolested. This was exactly what Kolokotronis had been hoping for. In August 1822 his quicker-moving guerrilla forces trapped the Turks in the pass and annihilated them. A devastated Sultan Mahmud II in Constantinople was forced to turn to Muhammad Ali, ruler of the nominally Ottoman pashaluk of Egypt for help.

    The weapons and armour of General Theodoros Kolokotronis (1770-1843)


    The Greeks resumed the siege against the fortresses at Nafplio, which fell in December. Kolokotronis is said to have ridden his horse up the steep slopes of Kastro Palamidi to celebrate his victory there; a statue in the town square commemorates the event. He is attired in something resembling the costume of a hussar topped with a plumed Corinthian helmet, which he was fond of wearing, and which foreign Philhellenes were even fonder of seeing him in. (While he seems to have enjoyed dressing like a Western European cavalryman cum Ancient Greek hoplite, he is also frequently depicted wearing the more traditional fustanella and other traditional accoutrements).
    [edit] Parliamentary crisis

    From December 1823 to February 1825, he took part in the civil wars between the various Greek factions; when his party was finally defeated, he was jailed in Hydra with some of his followers in March 1825, and was released only when an Egyptian army under the command of Ibrahim Pasha invaded the Morea.
    [edit] Ibrahim's campaign

    Ibrahim was fresh from fighting the Wahhabi rebels in Arabia, and so was used to fighting guerrillas. His troops were armed with the most modern equipment and trained by European experts. The sultan had promised his father the island of Crete as an appanage for young Ibrahim if he could crush the rebels. With his eye on the prize, he burned his way through the Peloponnese, gaining much territory but arousing much hostility in Western European public opinion, which in the long run proved disastrous for the Turks.

    Statue of Kolokotronis in Athens.



    Portrait of Kolokotronis used for the 5,000 drachma banknote.


    The island of Sphacteria and Navarino had already fallen into Ibrahim's hands, and to make matters worse for Kolokotronis, he still had to be on guard against the machinations of Petrobey Mavromichalis even as he was bracing himself against the new threat. Kolokotronis used guerrilla tactics to wear Ibrahim's forces down; but given his limited resources, was unable to prevent the widespread destruction that Ibrahim left in his wake. Still, in 1825, in recognition of his military acumen and many services to the Greek cause, he was appointed commander-in-chief of Greek forces in the Peloponnese.
    [edit] Postbellum activities

    After the war Kolokotronis became a supporter of Count Ioannis Kapodistrias and a proponent of alliance with Russia. When the count was assassinated on 8 October 1831, Kolokotronis created his own administration in support of Prince Otto of Bavaria as a king of Greece. However, later he opposed the Bavarian-dominated regency during his rule. He was charged with treason and on 7 June 1834 sentenced to death; but he was pardoned in 1835. Theodoros Kolokotronis died in 1843 in Athens one day after his son's Konstantinos(Kollinos) wedding.
    [edit] Epilogue

    In the twilight of his life, Kolokotronis had learned to write in order to complete his memoirs, which have been a perennial favorite in Greece and have been several times translated into English and other languages. Kolokotronis' famed helmet, along with the rest of his arms and armor, may today be seen in the National History Museum of Greece in Athens. In addition to the Nafplio statue mentioned earlier, there is another to be seen in Athens, in the forecourt of the Old Parliament building on Stadiou Street, near Syntagma Square.

  8. #138
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    Emmanouil Papas

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    Emmanouil Papas, Büste, Athen


    Emmanouil Papas (* 1773 in Dovista; † 5. Dezember 1821) war ein Kommandant im griechischen Unabhängigkeitskampf.
    Er wurde in Dovista, einem Dorf in der Nähe von Serres in Makedonien geboren, welches heute nach ihm benannt ist. Nach seiner schulischen Grundausbildung zog er nach Serres um zu studieren, wo er auch seinen Abschluss machte. Danach kehrte er nach Dovista zurück wo er heiratete und aufgrund seiner erfolgreichen Tätigkeit als Bankier und Kaufmann in relativ kurzer Zeit zu einer einflussreichen und respektablen Persönlichkeit in der Region wurde.
    Bald darauf wurde Papas in der "Gesellschaft der Freunde" (griech: "Philiki Etaireia") von Ioannis Pharmakis aufgenommen welche das Ziel hatte, die Unabhängigkeit Griechenlands vom Osmanischen Reich zu erwirken. Auch seine vier Brüder sowie weitere Notablen aus der Region schlossen sich diesem Geheimbund an und begannen paramilitärische Verbände aufzustellen. Um eine bessere Zusammenarbeit mit den Führern der "Philiki Etaireia" zu erreichen, zog Papas nach Konstantinopel (heute Istanbul) wo er sogar ein Attentat auf den Sultan plante, welches jedoch aufgrund eines Verrats fehlschlug. Unterdessen hatte sich sein Ruhm hinsichtlich seiner patriotischen Tätigkeiten in allen Teilen Griechenlands verbreitet.
    Als 1821 die Revolution ausgerufen wurde, verließ Emmanouil Papas Konstantinopel und wurde in Athos zum Kommandanten der makedonischen Revolutionstruppen ernannt, welche aus ca. 2500 Mann bestanden. Ein in Serres ausgebrochener, erfolgloser Aufstand führte dazu, dass seine Familie durch die Türken inhaftiert,sein Besitz konfisziert und sein Haus niedergebrannt wurde.
    Papas ließ sich dadurch jedoch nicht von seinem Ziel abbringen und setzte den bewaffneten Kampf in Makedonien in der Hoffnung fort, Unterstützung durch die "Philiki Etaireia" und General Alexander Ypsilantis zu erhalten, welche aber ausblieb. Seine Erfolge wurden durch ein von der Hohen Pforte entsandtes Expeditionsheer unter Abdul Aboud zunichte gemacht, das bei seiner Verfolgung ganze Landstriche auf der Halbinsel Chalkidiki und am Strymonischen Golf verwüstete.
    Sich seiner Niederlage bewusst und durch den Misserfolg des Aufstands in Makedonien verbittert, beschloss Emmanouil Papas auf die Insel Hydra - eines der wichtigsten Zentren der Unabhängigkeitsbewegung - zu fliehen, um von dort aus weitere Aktionen zu planen. Während dieser Reise verstarb er jedoch am 5. Dezember 1821 in Folge eines Herzinfarkts. Sein Leichnam wurde nach Hydra gebracht und mit militärischen Ehren beigesetzt. Im Jahre 1843 wurde er durch das griechische Parlament als einer der Protagonisten des Unabhängigkeitskriegs anerkannt.














    emannouil papas kämpfte ebenfalls 1821 für ein freies griechenland allerdings nicht auf dem peleponnes sondern in makedonien leider schlug die revolution in makedonien fehl und makedonien sollte fast 100 jahre später erst befreit werden

  9. #139
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    Georgios Karaiskakis

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    Georgios Karaiskakis
    Γεώργιος Καραϊσκάκης January 23, 1780(1780-01-23) (?) – April 23, 1827(1827-04-23) (aged 47) Place of birth Mavromati, Karditsa Place of death Faliro, Piraeus Allegiance Greece Years of service 1796 - 1827 Rank Field Marshal Commands held Commander of the Army in Central Greece Battles/wars Greek War of Independence Georgios Karaiskakis (Greek: Γεώργιος Καραϊσκάκης) born Georgios Iskos (January 23, 1780 or January 23, 1782 - April 23, 1827) was a famous Greek klepht, armatolos, military commander, and a hero of the Greek War of Independence.
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    [edit] Early life

    Karaiskakis was born either in a monastery near the village of Mavrommati (Greek: Μαυρομμάτι), in the Agrafa mountains (located in what is now the Karditsa Prefecture, Thessaly) or in a monastery near the village of Skoulikaria (Greek: Σκουληκαριά) close to Arta. His father was the armatolos of the Valtos district, Dimitris Iskos or Karaiskos, his mother Zoe Dimiski, a nun from Arta and cousin of Gogos Bakolas, captain of the armatoliki of Radovitsi. He was of Sarakatsani[1] decent
    Known as “The Nun’s Son”[citation needed] and “Gypsy”[citation needed] (because of his dark complexion), at a very early age he became a klepht in the service of Katsantonis, a famous local Agrafiote brigand captain. He excelled as a klepht - agile, cunning, brave and reckless - and rose quickly through the ranks, eventually becoming a protopalikaro, or lieutenant.
    At the age of fifteen he was captured by the troops of Ali Pasha and imprisoned at Ioannina. Ali Pasha, impressed by Karaiskakis’s courage and intelligence, and sensing his worth as a fighter, released him from prison and put him in the care of his personal bodyguards. He served as a bodyguard to Ali Pasha for a few years before losing favour with the Ottoman warlord and fleeing into the mountains to continue life as a klepht.
    [edit] Greek War of Independence


    "The camp of Georgios Karaiskakis" by Theodoros Vryzakis (1855).


    During the early stages of the war, Karaiskakis served in the militia in the Morea (Peloponnese), where he participated in the intrigues that divided the Greek leadership. Nonetheless, he recognized the necessity of providing Greece with a stable government and was a supporter of Ioannis Kapodistrias who would later become Greece's first head of state.
    Karaiskakis's reputation grew during the middle and latter stages of the war. He helped to lift the first siege of Messolonghi in 1823, and did his best to save the town from its second siege in 1826.
    That same year, he was appointed commander-in-chief of the Greek patriotic forces in Rumeli, achieving a mixed response: while failing to cooperate effectively with other leaders of the independence movement or with the foreign sympathizers fighting alongside the Greeks, he gained some military successes against the Ottomans.
    His most famous victory was at Arachova (Greek: Αράχωβα), where his army together with other klephtes leaders such as Dimitrios Makris, crushed a force of Turkish and Albanian troops under Mustafa Bey and Kehagia Bey.[2] Victories such as the one at Arachova were especially welcome amid the disasters that were occurring elsewhere.
    In 1827, Karaiskakis participated in the failed attempt to raise the siege of Athens, and attempted to prevent the massacre of the Turkish garrison stationed in the fort of Saint Spyridon.
    He was killed in action on his Greek name day, 23 April 1827, after being fatally wounded by a rifle shell in battle. Karaiskaki Stadium in Neo Faliro, Piraeus is named after him as he was mortally wounded in the area. According to Karaiskakis's expressed desire to be buried on the island of Salamis when he died, he was buried at the church of Saint Dimitrios on Salamis .

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