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Isocrates, Speeches and Letters (ed. George Norlin) u.v.m

Erstellt von Macedonian, 16.11.2005, 11:16 Uhr · 252 Antworten · 56.356 Aufrufe

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    Isocrates, Speeches and Letters (ed. George Norlin) u.v.m


    Isocrates, Speeches and Letters (ed. George Norlin)

    Vergina-Sonne vergrößert #1
    Vergina-Sonne vergrößert #2

    Der unten zitierte Text des Atheners Sophisten Isokrates beinhaltet die Aufforderung an den makedonischen König Phillip die griechischen Städte zu versöhnen und zu einen. Um Phillip zu überzeugen, führt Isokrates das Argument an, dass Phillips Vorfahren selbst aus einer griechischen Stadt stammen nämlich Argos, die übrigens auf der Pelepones liegt. Was sagt ihr dazu -F.Y.R.O.M-Slawen?

    ''Isocrates, Speeches and Letters (ed. George Norlin)

    To Phillip 5.30-33

    [30] This, then, completes what I wanted to say by way of introduction. I shall now proceed with the subject in hand.

    I affirm that, without neglecting any of your own interests, you ought to make an effort to reconcile Argos and Lacedaemon and Thebes and Athens; for if you can bring these cities together, you will not find it hard to unite the others as well; [31] for all the rest are under the protection of the aforesaid cities, and fly for refuge, when they are alarmed, to one or other of these powers, and they all draw upon them for succor. So that if you can persuade four cities only to take a sane view of things, you will deliver the others also from many evils.

    [32] Now you will realize that it is not becoming in you to disregard any of these cities if you will review their conduct in relation to your ancestors; for you will find that each one of them is to be credited with great friendship and important services to your house: Argos is the land of your fathers,2 and is entitled to as much consideration at your hands as are your own ancestors; the Thebans honor the founder3 of your race, both by processionals and by sacrifices,4 beyond all the other gods;''
    Quelle:
    http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin...yout=;loc=5.27

    ''Isocrates, Speeches and Letters (ed. George Norlin)
    To Philip 5.137-139

    [137] You will best resolve upon this question if you feel that you are summoned to this task, not by my words only, but by your forefathers, by the cowardice of the Persians, and by all who have won great fame and attained the rank of demigods because of their campaigns against the barbarians, and, most of all, by the present opportunity, which finds you in the possession of greater power than has any of those who dwell in Europe, and finds him against whom you are to make war more cordially hated and despised by the world at large than was ever any king before him.

    [138] I should have given much to be able to blend into one all the speeches I have delivered on this question; for the present discourse would then appear more worthy of its theme. But, as things are, it devolves upon you to search out and consider, from all my speeches, the arguments which bear upon and urge you to this war; for so you will best resolve upon the matter.

    [139] Now I am not unaware that many of the Hellenes look upon the King's power as invincible.1 Yet one may well marvel at them if they really believe that the power which was subdued to the will of a mere barbarian--an ill-bred2 barbarian at that--and collected in the cause of slavery, could not be scattered by a man of the blood of Hellas, of ripe experience in warfare, in the cause of freedom--and that too although they know that while it is in all cases difficult to construct a thing, to destroy it is, comparatively, an easy task.

    Auf Griechisch:

    [137] οὕτω δ' ἄριστα βουλεύσει περὶ τούτων, ἢν ὑπολάβῃς μὴ μόνον τὸν λόγον του̂τόν σε παρακαλει̂ν, ἀλλὰ καὶ τοὺς προγόνους καὶ τὴν τω̂ν βαρβάρων ἀνανδρίαν καὶ τοὺς ὀνομαστοτάτους γενομένους καὶ δόξαντας ἡμιθέους εἰ̂ναι διὰ τὴν στρατείαν τὴν ἐπ' ἐκείνους, μάλιστα δὲ πάντων τὸν καιρόν, ἐν ᾡ̂ σὺ μὲν τυγχάνεις τοσαύτην δύναμιν κεκτημένος ὅσην οὐδεὶς τω̂ν τὴν Εὐρώπην κατοικησάντων, πρὸς ὃν δὲ πολεμήσεις, οὕτω σφόδρα μεμισημένος καὶ καταπεφρονημένος ὑφ' ἁπάντων ὡς οὐδεὶς πώποτε τω̂ν βασιλευσάντων. [138] πρὸ πολλου̂ δ' ἂν ἐποιησάμην οἱ̂όν τ' εἰ̂ναι συνερα̂σαι τοὺς λόγους ἅπαντας τοὺς ὑπ' ἐμου̂ περὶ τούτων εἰρημένους: μα̂λλον γὰρ ἂν ἄξιος οὑ̂τος ἔδοξεν εἰ̂ναι τη̂ς ὑποθέσεως. οὐ μὴν ἀλλὰ σέ γε χρὴ σκοπει̂ν ἐξ ἁπάντων τὰ συντείνοντα καὶ προτρέποντα πρὸς τὸν πόλεμον του̂τον: οὕτω γὰρ ἂν ἄριστα βουλεύσαιο περὶ αὐτω̂ν. [139] οὐκ ἀγνοω̂ δ' ὅτι πολλοὶ τω̂ν ̔Ελλήνων τὴν βασιλέως δύναμιν ἄμαχον εἰ̂ναι νομίζουσιν: ὡ̂ν ἄξιον θαυμάζειν, εἰ τὴν ὑπ' ἀνθρώπου βαρβάρου καὶ κακω̂ς τεθραμμένου κατασταθει̂σαν καὶ συναχθει̂σαν ἐπὶ δουλείᾳ, ταύτην ὑπ' ἀνδρὸς ̔́Ελληνος καὶ περὶ τοὺς πολέμους πολλὴν ἐμπειρίαν ἔχοντος μὴ νομίζουσιν ἂν ἐπ' ἐλευθερίᾳ διαλυθη̂ναι, καὶ ταυ̂τ' εἰδότες ὅτι συστη̂σαι μέν ἐστιν ἅπαντα χαλεπόν, διαστη̂σαι δὲ ῥᾴδιον.''
    Quelle:
    http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin...out=&loc=5.138

    P.S
    Vielen Dank an User fasoulaki aus www.politikforum.de für die Informationen.








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    THREAD-MENÜ
    Seite 2
    - Polybios Histories 9.37
    - ANTIKE ZITATE [Herodots Aussage über die Herkunft der Griechen, Alexander III (der Große) in Konversation mit Darius dem Perserkönig, Arrianus ("Alexander der Große" 1,16,7) Beschreibt eine Handlung Alexanders nach einer gewonnenen Schlacht in Asien, Thukydides bestätigt ebeso das die Makedonenherrscher hellenischer Abstammung und von der Stadt Argos kamen. (Buch 2, 99.3), Pausanias schreibt in seinem Buch "Beschreibung Griechenlands" das die Stimmen der Phokier an die Makedonen abgetreten wurden.(10.3.3), Aeschines (Die Botschaft 2.32) Legt einen weiteren Beweis dafür, das König Amyntas von Makedonien an dem Kongress der Lacedaemonen und der anderen griechischen Allierten teilnahm.]
    - Aristoteles, der Lehrer Alexanders des Großen

    Seite 6
    - Pella, die Geburtsstadt Alexanders des Großen

    Seite 7
    - ''Erfindung der "makedonischen" Schriftsprache [...]''
    - Dokumente und Banknoten die Beweisen, dass Alexander der Große und Makedonien auch vor 1988 in Griechenland bekannt waren
    - Schaffung einer eigenen Sprache, Nationalstaat und Nation

    Seite 8
    - Zitate aus der Bibel (I, II)
    - Etymologische Erklärung der Wörter Alexander, Philip und Macedonia

    Seite 9
    - Politische Gliederung Makedoniens & Eine Landkarte der Universität Texas aus dem Jahre 1973, die beweist, dass die griechische Privonz Makedonien auch vor 1988 den Namen Makedonien trug
    - Weitere Fakten die beweisen, dass Makedonien griechisch ist

    Seite 10
    - Griechenland - Politische Landkarte / Administrative Gliederung u.v.m
    - Antike Münzen die beweisen, dass die makedonischen Könige griechische Namen trugen

    Seite 12
    - Die Makedonen waren Hellenen und sprachen hellenisch (Aussagen und Quellen)

    Seite 13
    - Expansionsgelüste der Slawen aus F.Y.R.O.M & Etymologische Erklärung der Wörter Amyntas, Bucephalus, Aristoteles, Thessaloniki
    - ''Geschichte wird gemacht: Ein viel diskutiertes Thema beim 44. Deutschen Historikertag in Halle''
    - Das hellenisch-makedonische Symbol "Sonne von Vergina" bzw. "Vergina Sun"

    Seite 14
    - ZITATE ZUM HELLENISMUS
    - THESSALONIKI ist der einzig wahre Name der Stadt [Fakten]
    - Alexander der Große - Begründer des Hellenismus
    - Kleopatra - Die griechisch-ägyptische Königin

    Seite 15

    - Historische, ethnische und Religions-Landkarten von Europa und Süd-Ost-Europa (Balkan und Region)
    - Die Verschiebung der Bevölkerungsverhältnisse in Griechisch Makedonien 1912 / 1926 (Statistik)
    - Fakten die beweisen, dass der Name ''Makedonia'' (Makedonien) auch vor 1988 in Griechenland von staatlichen Institutionen und Privatunternehmen gebraucht wurde

    Seite 16
    - Historische, ethnische und Religions-Landkarten von Europa und Süd-Ost-Europa (Balkan und Region)
    - ''Popolazione dell'Impero ottomano , 1911''
    - Bilder zum Thema (Luftbild von Vergina, Pella & Haus von Dyonisos. Makedonischer Helm u.v.m)

    Seite 17
    - Historische, ethnische und Religions-Landkarten von Europa und Süd-Ost-Europa (Balkan und Region)
    - Texte zur Nationbuilding & Geschichtsfälschung aus F.Y.R.O.M

    Seite 18
    - Buchtipp - Alexander der Grosse - Gehrke, Hans-Joachim + Kleine Kostprobe + ISBN
    - Ethnische Landkarte Europas

    Seite 20
    - Ethnische Landkarten Europas

    Seite 21
    - Alexander der Große und der Zentralrat der Juden in Deutschland

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    JETZT KOMMT DIE BOMBE 8)

    ''Isocrates, Speeches and Letters
    George Norlin, Ed.

    To Phillip 5.127

    Therefore, since the others are so lacking in spirit, I think it is opportune for you to head the war against the King; and, while it is only natural for the other descendants of Heracles, and for men who are under the bonds of their polities and laws, to cleave fondly to that state in which they happen to dwell, it is your privilege, as one who has been blessed with untrammeled freedom,1 to consider all Hellas your fatherland,2 as did the founder of your race, and to be as ready to brave perils for her sake as for the things about which you are personally most concerned.

    Auf Griechisch:

    διὸ καὶ σοὶ νομίζω συμφέρειν οὕτως ἀνάνδρως διακειμένων τῶν ἄλλων προστῆναι τοῦ πολέμου τοῦ πρὸς ἐκεῖνον. προσήκει δὲ τοῖς μὲν ἄλλοις τοῖς ἀφ᾽ Ἡρακλέους πεφυκόσι καὶ τοῖς ἐν πολιτείᾳ καὶ νόμοις ἐνδεδεμένοις ἐκείνην τὴν πόλιν στέργειν, ἐν ᾗ τυγχάνουσι κατοικοῦντες, σὲ δ᾽ ὥσπερ ἄφετον γεγενημένον ἅπασαν τὴν Ἑλλάδα πατρίδα νομίζειν, ὥσπερ ὁ γεννήσας ὑμᾶς, καὶ κινδυνεύειν ὑπὲρ αὐτῆς ὁμοίως ὥσπερ ὑπὲρ ὧν μάλιστα σπουδάζεις.''
    Quelle:
    http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/...=5:section=127

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    Strabo, Geography

    Strabo Geography 7.7
    ''There remain of Europe, first, Macedonia and the parts of Thrace that are contiguous to it and extend as far as Byzantium; secondly, Greece; and thirdly, the islands that are close by. Macedonia, of course, is a part of Greece, yet now, since I am following the nature and shape of the places geographically, I have decided to classify it apart from the rest of Greece and to join it with that part of Thrace which borders on it and extends as far as the mouth of the Euxine and the Propontis. Then, a little further on, Strabo mentions Cypsela and the Nebrus River, and also describes a sort of parallelogram in which the whole of Macedonia lies.

    Auf Griechisch:

    λοιπὴ δ᾽ ἐστὶ τῆς Εὐρώπης ἥ τε Μακεδονία καὶ τῆς Θρᾴκης τὰ συνεχῆ ταύτῃ μέχρι Βυζαντίου καὶ ἡ Ἑλλὰς καὶ αἱ προσεχεῖς νῆσοι. ἔστι μὲν οὖν Ἑλλὰς καὶ ἡ Μακεδονία: νυνὶ μέντοι τῇ φύσει τῶν τόπων ἀκολουθοῦντες καὶ τῷ σχήματι χωρὶς ἔγνωμεν αὐτὴν ἀπὸ τῆς ἄλλης Ἑλλάδος τάξαι καὶ συνάψαι πρὸς τὴν ὅμορον αὐτῇ Θρᾴκην μέχρι τοῦ στόματος τοῦ Εὐξείνου καὶ τῆς Προποντίδος. εἶτα μετ᾽ ὀλίγα μέμνηται Κυψέλων καὶ τοῦ Ἕβρου ποταμοῦ. καταγράφει δὲ καί τι σχῆμα παραλληλόγραμμον, ἐν ᾧ ἡ σύμπασα Μακεδονία ἐστίν.''
    Quelle:
    Klick!

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    Herodotus, The Histories A. D. Godley, Ed.

    ''...Alexander sohn des Philipps und der Hellenen......."

    Quelle:
    Arrianus ("Alexander der Große" 1,16,7) Beschreibt eine Handlung Alexanders nach einer gewonnenen Schlacht in Asien.

    Herodotus, The Histories 9.45

    Hearing that, the generals straightway went with the men to the outposts. When they had come, Alexander said to them: “Men of Athens, I give you this message in trust as a secret which you must reveal to no one but Pausanias, or else you will be responsible for my undoing. In truth I would not tell it to you if I did not care so much for all Hellas; [2] I myself am by ancient descent a Greek, and I would not willingly see Hellas change her freedom for slavery. I tell you, then, that Mardonius and his army cannot get omens to his liking from the sacrifices. Otherwise you would have fought long before this. Now, however, it is his purpose to pay no heed to the sacrifices, and to attack at the first glimmer of dawn, for he fears, as I surmise, that your numbers will become still greater. Therefore, I urge you to prepare, and if (as may be) Mardonius should delay and not attack, wait patiently where you are; for he has but a few days' provisions left. [3] If, however, this war ends as you wish, then must you take thought how to save me too from slavery, who have done so desperate a deed as this for the sake of Hellas in my desire to declare to you Mardonius' intent so that the barbarians may not attack you suddenly before you yet expect them. I who speak am Alexander the Macedonian.” With that he rode away back to the camp and his own station there.

    οἳ δὲ ἐπεὶ ταῦτα ἤκουσαν, αὐτίκα εἵποντο ἐς τὰς φυλακάς: ἀπικομένοισι δὲ ἔλεγε Ἀλέξανδρος τάδε. “ἄνδρες Ἀθηναῖοι, παραθήκην ὑμῖν τὰ ἔπεα τάδε τίθεμαι, ἀπόρρητα ποιεύμενος πρὸς μηδένα λέγειν ὑμέας ἄλλον ἢ Παυσανίην, μή με καὶ διαφθείρητε: οὐ γὰρ ἂν ἔλεγον, εἰ μὴ μεγάλως ἐκηδόμην συναπάσης τῆς Ἑλλάδος. [2] αὐτός τε γὰρ Ἕλλην γένος εἰμὶ τὠρχαῖον καὶ ἀντ᾽ ἐλευθέρης δεδουλωμένην οὐκ ἂν ἐθέλοιμι ὁρᾶν τὴν Ἑλλάδα. λέγω δὲ ὦν ὅτι Μαρδονίῳ τε καὶ τῇ στρατιῇ τὰ σφάγια οὐ δύναται καταθύμια γενέσθαι: πάλαι γὰρ ἂν ἐμάχεσθε. νῦν δέ οἱ δέδοκται τὰ μὲν σφάγια ἐᾶν χαίρειν, ἅμ᾽ ἡμέρῃ δὲ διαφωσκούσῃ συμβολὴν ποιέεσθαι: καταρρώδηκε γὰρ μὴ πλεῦνες συλλεχθῆτε, ὡς ἐγὼ εἰκάζω. πρὸς ταῦτα ἑτοιμάζεσθε. ἢν δὲ ἄρα ὑπερβάληται τὴν συμβολὴν Μαρδόνιος καὶ μὴ ποιέηται, λιπαρέετε μένοντες: ὀλιγέων γάρ σφι ἡμερέων λείπεται σιτία. [3] ἢν δὲ ὑμῖν ὁ πόλεμος ὅδε κατὰ νόον τελευτήσῃ, μνησθῆναι τινὰ χρὴ καὶ ἐμεῦ ἐλευθερώσιος πέρι, ὃς Ἑλλήνων εἵνεκα οὕτω ἔργον παράβολον ἔργασμαι ὑπὸ προθυμίης, ἐθέλων ὑμῖν δηλῶσαι τὴν διάνοιαν τὴν Μαρδονίου, ἵνα μὴ ἐπιπέσωσι ὑμῖν ἐξαίφνης οἱ βάρβαροι μὴ προσδεκομένοισί κω. εἰμὶ δὲ Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μακεδών.” ὃ μὲν ταῦτα εἴπας ἀπήλαυνε ὀπίσω ἐς τὸ στρατόπεδον καὶ τὴν ἑωυτοῦ τάξιν.
    Quelle:
    KLICK

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    Herodotus, The Histories 5.20

    Herodotus, The Histories 5.20

    When Amyntas made this request and had gone his way, Alexander said to the Persians, “Sirs, you have full freedom to deal with these women, and may have intercourse with all or any of them. [2] As to that, you may make your own decision, but now, since the hour of your rest is drawing near and I see that you are all completely drunk, allow these women to depart and wash, if this is your desire. When they have washed, wait for them to come to you again.” [3] When he had said this and the Persians had given their consent, he sent the women out and away to their apartments. Alexander then took as many beardless men as there were women, dressed them in the women's clothes, and gave them daggers. These he brought in, and said to the Persians, [4] “I believe, men of Persia, that you have feasted to your hearts' content. All that we had and all besides that we could find to give you has been set before you, and now we make you a free gift of our best and most valued possession, our own mothers and sisters. Be aware that in so doing we are giving you all the honor that you deserve, and tell your king who sent you how his Greek viceroy of Macedonia has received you hospitably, providing food and bedfellows.” [5] With that, Alexander seated each of his Macedonians next to a Persian, as though they were women, and when the Persians began to lay hands on them, they were killed by the Macedonians.

    In Griechisch:

    ὡς δὲ ὁ Ἀμύντης χρηίσας τούτων οἰχώκεε, λέγει ὁ Ἀλέξανδρος πρὸς τοὺς Πέρσας “γυναικῶν τουτέων, ὦ ξεῖνοι, ἔστι ὑμῖν πολλὴ εὐπετείη, καὶ εἰ πάσῃσι βούλεσθε μίσγεσθαι καὶ ὁκόσῃσι ὦν αὐτέων. [2] τούτου μὲν πέρι αὐτοὶ ἀποσημανέετε: νῦν δέ, σχεδὸν γὰρ ἤδη τῆς κοίτης ὥρη προσέρχεται ὑμῖν καὶ καλῶς ἔχοντας ὑμέας ὁρῶ μέθης, γυναῖκας ταύτας, εἰ ὑμῖν φίλον ἐστί, ἄπετε λούσασθαι, λουσαμένας δὲ ὀπίσω προσδέκεσθε.” [3] εἴπας ταῦτα, συνέπαινοι γὰρ ἦσαν οἱ Πέρσαι, γυναῖκας μὲν ἐξελθούσας ἀπέπεμπε ἐς τὴν γυναικηίην, αὐτὸς δὲ ὁ Ἀλέξανδρος ἴσους τῇσι γυναιξὶ ἀριθμὸν ἄνδρας λειογενείους τῇ τῶν γυναικῶν ἐσθῆτι σκευάσας καὶ ἐγχειρίδια δοὺς ἦγε ἔσω, παράγων δὲ τούτους ἔλεγε τοῖσι Πέρσῃσι τάδε. [4] “ὦ Πέρσαι, οἴκατε πανδαισίῃ τελέῃ ἱστιῆσθαι: τά τε γὰρ ἄλλα ὅσα εἴχομεν, καὶ πρὸς τὰ οἷά τε ἦν ἐξευρόντας παρέχειν, πάντα ὑμῖν πάρεστι, καὶ δὴ καὶ τόδε τὸ πάντων μέγιστον, τάς τε ἑωυτῶν μητέρας καὶ τὰς ἀδελφεὰς ἐπιδαψιλευόμεθα ὑμῖν, ὡς παντελέως μάθητε τιμώμενοι πρὸς ἡμέων τῶν περ ἐστὲ ἄξιοι, πρὸς δὲ καὶ βασιλέι τῷ πέμψαντι ἀπαγγείλητε ὡς ἀνὴρ Ἕλλην Μακεδόνων ὕπαρχος εὖ ὑμέας ἐδέξατο καὶ τραπέζῃ καὶ κοίτῃ.” [5] ταῦτα εἴπας ὁ Ἀλέξανδρος παρίζει Πέρσῃ ἀνδρὶ ἄνδρα Μακεδόνα ὡς γυναῖκα τῷ λόγῳ: οἳ δέ, ἐπείτε σφέων οἱ Πέρσαι ψαύειν ἐπειρῶντο, διεργάζοντο αὐτούς.
    Quelle:
    http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/...k=5:chapter=20

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    Herodotus, The Histories 5.22

    Herodotus, The Histories 5.22

    Now that these descendants of Perdiccas are Greeks, as they themselves say, I myself chance to know and will prove it in the later part of my history. Furthermore, the Hellenodicae1 who manage the contest at Olympia determined that it is so, [2] for when Alexander chose to contend and entered the lists for that purpose, the Greeks who were to run against him wanted to bar him from the race, saying that the contest should be for Greeks and not for foreigners. Alexander, however, proving himself to be an Argive, was judged to be a Greek. He accordingly competed in the furlong race and tied step for first place. This, then, is approximately what happened.

    Auf Griechisch:

    Ἕλληνας δὲ εἶναι τούτους τοὺς ἀπὸ Περδίκκεω γεγονότας, κατά περ αὐτοὶ λέγουσι, αὐτός τε οὕτω τυγχάνω ἐπιστάμενος καὶ δὴ καὶ ἐν τοῖσι ὄπισθε λόγοισι ἀποδέξω ὡς εἰσὶ Ἕλληνες, πρὸς δὲ καὶ οἱ τὸν ἐν Ὀλυμπίῃ διέποντες ἀγῶνα Ἑλληνοδίκαι οὕτω ἔγνωσαν εἶναι. [2] Ἀλεξάνδρου γὰρ ἀεθλεύειν ἑλομένου καὶ καταβάντος ἐπ᾽ αὐτὸ τοῦτο, οἱ ἀντιθευσόμενοι Ἑλλήνων ἐξεῖργόν μιν, φάμενοι οὐ βαρβάρων ἀγωνιστέων εἶναι τὸν ἀγῶνα ἀλλὰ Ἑλλήνων: Ἀλέξανδρος δὲ ἐπειδὴ ἀπέδεξε ὡς εἴη Ἀργεῖος, ἐκρίθη τε εἶναι Ἕλλην καὶ ἀγωνιζόμενος στάδιον συνεξέπιπτε τῷ πρώτῳ.
    Quelle:
    http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/...k=5:chapter=22

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    Titus Livius - The History of Rome XXXI.29 bzw. 31.29

    Titus Livius
    The History of Rome XXXI.29 bzw. 31.29

    The assembly of the Aetolians, which they call Panaetolium, was to meet on a certain day. In order to be present at this, the king's ambassadors hastened their journey, and Lucius Furius Purpureo also arrived, deputed by the consul. Ambassadors from the Athenians, likewise, came to this assembly. The Macedonians were first heard, as with them the latest treaty had been made; and they declared, that as no change of circumstances had occurred, they had nothing new to introduce: for the same reasons which had induced them to make peace with Philip, after experiencing the unprofitableness of an alliance with the Romans, should engage them to preserve it now that it was established. "Do you rather choose," said one of the ambassadors, "to imitate the inconsistency, or levity, shall I call it, of the Romans, who ordered this answer to be given to your ambassadors at Rome: 'Why, Aetolians, do you apply to us, when, without our approbation, you have made peace with Philip?' Yet these same people now require that you should, in conjunction with them, wage war against Philip. Formerly, too, they pretended that they took arms on your account, and in your defence against Philip: now they do not allow you to continue at peace with him. To assist Messana, they first embarked for Sicily; and a second time, that they might redeem Syracuse to freedom when oppressed by the Carthaginians. Both Messana and Syracuse, and all Sicily, they hold in their own possession, and have reduced it into a tributary province under their axes and rods. You imagine, perhaps, that in the same manner as you hold an assembly at Naupactus, according to your own laws, under magistrates created by yourselves, at liberty to choose allies and enemies, and to have peace or war at your own option, so the assembly of the states of Sicily is summoned, to Syracuse, or Messana, or Lilybaeum. No, a Roman praetor presides at the meeting; summoned by his command they assemble; they behold him, attended by his lictors seated on a lofty throne, issuing his haughty edicts. His rods are ready for their backs, his axes for their necks, and every year they are allotted a different master. Neither ought they nor can they, wonder at this, when they see all the cities of Italy bending under the same yoke,--Rhegium, Tarentum Capua, not to mention those in their own neighbourhood, out of the ruins of which their city of Rome grew into power. Capua indeed subsists, the grave and monument of the Campanian people, that entire people having been either cut off or driven into banishment; the mutilated carcass of a city, without senate, without commons, without magistrates; a sort of prodigy, the leaving which to be inhabited, showed more cruelty than if it had been utterly destroyed. If foreigners who are separated from us to a greater distance by their language, manners, and laws, than by the distance by sea and land, are allowed to get footing here, it is madness to hope that any thing will continue in its present state. Does the sovereignty of Philip seem in any degree incompatible with your freedom, who, at a time when he was justly incensed against you, demanded nothing more of you than peace; and at present requires no more than the observance of the peace which he agreed to? Accustom foreign legions to these countries, and receive the yoke; too late, and in vain, will you look for Philip as an ally, when you shall have the Roman as a master. Trifling causes occasionally unite and disunite the Aetolians, Acarnanians, and Macedonians, men speaking the same language. With foreigners, with barbarians, all Greeks have, and ever will have, eternal war: because they are enemies by nature, which is always the same, and not from causes which change with the times. My discourse shall conclude with the same argument with which it began. Three years since, the same persons, assembled in this same place, determined on peace with the same Philip, contrary to the inclinations of the same Romans, who now wish that the peace should be broken, after it has been adjusted and ratified. In the subject of your deliberation, fortune has made no change; why you should make any, I do not see."
    Quelle:
    http://www.gutenberg.org/files/12582...2582-h.htm#e29

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    Polybios Histories 9.35

    Polybios Histories 9.35

    "Not being able to say anything in defence of
    B.C. 279.
    any of these acts, you talk pompously about your having resisted the invasion of Delphi by the barbarians, and allege that for this Greece ought to be grateful to you. But if for this one service some gratitude is owing to the Aetolians; what high honour do the Macedonians deserve, who throughout nearly their whole lives are ceaselessly engaged in a struggle with the barbarians for the safety of the Greeks? For that Greece would have been continually involved in great dangers, if we had not had the Macedonians and the ambition of their kings as a barrier, who is ignorant? And there is a very striking proof of this.
    Defeat and death of Ptolemy Ceraunus in the battle with the Gauls, B.C. 280. See Pausan. 10.19.7.
    For no sooner had the Gauls conceived a contempt for the Macedonians, by their victory over Ptolemy Ceraunus, than, thinking the rest of no account, Brennus promptly marched into the middle of Greece. And this would often have happened if the Macedonians had not been on our frontiers.

    Auf Griechisch:

    Καὶ πρὸς οὐδὲν τούτων ἀπολογηθῆναι δυνάμενοι σεμνύνεσθε, διότι τὴν ἐπὶ Δελφοὺς ἔφοδον τῶν βαρβάρων ὑπέστητε, καὶ φατὲ δεῖν διὰ ταῦτα χάριν ἔχειν ὑμῖν τοὺς Ἕλληνας. [2] ἀλλ᾽ εἰ διὰ μίαν ταύτην χρείαν Αἰτωλοῖς χάρις ὀφείλεται, τίνος καὶ πηλίκης δεῖ τιμῆς ἀξιοῦσθαι Μακεδόνας, οἳ τὸν πλείω τοῦ βίου χρόνον οὐ παύονται διαγωνιζόμενοι πρὸς τοὺς βαρβάρους ὑπὲρ τῆς τῶν Ἑλλήνων ἀσφαλείας; [3] ὅτι γὰρ αἰεί ποτ᾽ ἂν ἐν μεγάλοις ἦν κινδύνοις τὰ κατὰ τοὺς Ἕλληνας, εἰ μὴ Μακεδόνας εἴχομεν πρόφραγμα καὶ τὰς τῶν παρὰ τούτοις βασιλέων φιλοτιμίας, τίς οὐ γινώσκει; [4] μέγιστον δὲ τούτου σημεῖον: ἅμα γὰρ τῷ Γαλάτας καταφρονῆσαι Μακεδόνων νικήσαντας Πτολεμαῖον τὸν Κεραυνὸν ἐπικαλούμενον, εὐθέως καταγνόντες τῶν ἄλλων ἧκον οἱ περὶ Βρέννον εἰς μέσην τὴν Ἑλλάδα μετὰ δυνάμεως. ὃ πολλάκις ἂν συνέβαινε γίνεσθαι μὴ προκαθημένων Μακεδόνων. [5]

    Οὐ μὴν ἀλλὰ περὶ μὲν τῶν γεγονότων ἔχων πολλὰ λέγειν ἀρκεῖν ἡγοῦμαι: [6] τῶν δὲ Φιλίππῳ πεπραγμένων εἰς ἀσέβειαν ὠνείδισαν τὴν τοῦ ναοῦ καταφθοράν, οὐ προσθέντες τὴν αὑτῶν ὕβριν καὶ παρανομίαν, ἣν ἐπετελέσαντο περὶ τοὺς ἐν Δίῳ καὶ Δωδώνῃ ναοὺς καὶ τὰ τεμένη τῶν θεῶν. [7] ἐχρῆν δὲ λέγειν τοῦτο πρῶτον. ὑμεῖς δ᾽ ἃ μὲν ἐπάθετε, τούτοις ἐξηγήσασθε, μείζω ποιοῦντες τῶν γεγονότων, ἃ δ᾽ ἐποιήσατε πρότεροι, πολλαπλάσια γεγονότα παρεσιωπήσατε, [8] σαφῶς εἰδότες ὅτι τὰς ἀδικίας καὶ ζημίας ἅπαντες ἀεὶ τοῖς ἄρχουσι χειρῶν ἀδίκων ἐπιφέρουσι.
    Quelle:
    http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/...k=9:chapter=35

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    Herodotus, The Histories 8.43

    Herodotus, The Histories 8.43

    The following took part in the war: from the Peloponnese, the Lacedaemonians provided sixteen ships; the Corinthians the same number as at Artemisium; the Sicyonians furnished fifteen ships, the Epidaurians ten, the Troezenians five, the Hermioneans three. All of these except the Hermioneans are Dorian and Macedonian and had last come from Erineus and Pindus and the Dryopian region. The Hermioneans are Dryopians, driven out of the country now called Doris by Herakles and the Malians.

    Auf Griechisch:

    ἐστρατεύοντο δὲ οἵδε: ἐκ μὲν Πελοποννήσου Λακεδαιμόνιοι ἑκκαίδεκα νέας παρεχόμενοι, Κορίνθιοι δὲ τὸ αὐτὸ πλήρωμα παρεχόμενοι καὶ ἐπ᾽ Ἀρτεμισίῳ: Σικυώνιοι δὲ πεντεκαίδεκα παρείχοντο νέας, Ἐπιδαύριοι δὲ δέκα, Τροιζήνιοι δὲ πέντε, Ἑρμιονέες δὲ τρεῖς, ἐόντες οὗτοι πλὴν Ἑρμιονέων Δωρικόν τε καὶ Μακεδνὸν ἔθνος, ἐξ Ἐρινεοῦ τε καὶ Πίνδου καὶ τῆς Δρυοπίδος ὕστατα ὁρμηθέντες. οἱ δὲ Ἑρμιονέες εἰσὶ Δρύοπες, ὑπὸ Ἡρακλέος τε καὶ Μηλιέων ἐκ τῆς νῦν Δωρίδος καλεομένης χώρης ἐξαναστάντες.
    Quelle:
    http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/...k=8:chapter=43

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    Polybios Histories 7.9

    Polybios Histories 7.9
    This is a sworn treaty made between Hannibal, Mago, Barmocarus, and such members of the Carthaginian Gerusia as were present, and all Carthaginians serving in his army, on the one part; and Xenophanes, son of Cleomachus of Athens, sent to us by King Philip, as his ambassador, on behalf of himself, the Macedonians, and their allies, on the other part.The oath is taken in the presence of Zeus,Here, and Apollo: of the god of the Carthaginians, Hercules, and Iolaus: of Ares, Triton, Poseidon: of the gods that accompany the army, and of the sun, moon, and earth: of rivers, harbours, waters: of all the gods who rule Carthage: of all the gods who rule Macedonia and the rest of Greece: of all the gods of war that are witnesses to this oath. Hannibal, general, and all the Carthaginian senators with him, and all Carthaginians serving in his army, subject to our mutual consent, proposes to make this sworn treaty of friendship and honourable good-will. Let us be friends, close allies, and brethren, on the conditions herein following: (1) Let the Carthaginians, as supreme, Hannibal their chief general and those serving with him, all members of the Carthaginian dominion living under the same laws, as well as the people of Utica, and the cities and tribes subject to Carthage, and their soldiers and allies, and all cities and tribes in Italy, Celt-land, and Liguria, with whom we have a compact of friendship, and with whomsoever in this country we may hereafter form such compact, be supported by King Philip and the Macedonians, and all other Greeks in alliance with them.2) On their parts also King Philip and the Macedonians,and such other Greeks as are his allies, shall be supported and protected by the Carthaginians now in this army, and by the people of Utica, and by all cities and tribes subject to Carthage, both soldiers and allies, and by all allied cities and tribes in Italy, Celt-land, and Liguria, and by all others in Italy as shall hereafter become allies of the Carthaginians and the Cartha-ginians...

    Auf Griechisch:

    Ὅρκος, ὃν ἔθετο Ἀννίβας ὁ στρατηγός, Μάγωνος, Μύρκανος, Βαρμόκαρος, καὶ πάντες γερουσιασταὶ Καρχηδονίων οἱ μετ᾽ αὐτοῦ καὶ πάντες Καρχηδόνιοι στρατευόμενοι μετ᾽ αὐτοῦ πρὸς Ξενοφάνη Κλεομάχου Ἀθηναῖον πρεσβευτήν, ὃν ἀπέστειλε πρὸς ἡμᾶς Φίλιππος ὁ βασιλεὺς Δημητρίου ὑπὲρ αὑτοῦ καὶ Μακεδόνων καὶ τῶν συμμάχων, [2] ἐναντίον Διὸς καὶ Ἥρας καὶ Ἀπόλλωνος, ἐναντίον δαίμονος Καρχηδονίων καὶ Ἡρακλέους καὶ Ἰολάου, ἐναντίον Ἄρεως, Τρίτωνος, Ποσειδῶνος, ἐναντίον θεῶν τῶν συστρατευομένων καὶ Ἡλίου καὶ Σελήνης καὶ Γῆς, ἐναντίον ποταμῶν καὶ λιμένων καὶ ὑδάτων, [3] ἐναντίον πάντων θεῶν ὅσοι κατέχουσι Καρχηδόνα, ἐναντίον θεῶν πάντων ὅσοι Μακεδονίαν καὶ τὴν ἄλλην Ἑλλάδα κατέχουσιν, ἐναντίον θεῶν πάντων τῶν κατὰ στρατείαν, ὅσοι τινὲς ἐφεστήκασιν ἐπὶ τοῦδε τοῦ ὅρκου. [4] Ἀννίβας ὁ στρατηγὸς εἶπε καὶ πάντες Καρχηδονίων γερουσιασταὶ οἱ μετ᾽ αὐτοῦ καὶ πάντες Καρχηδόνιοι οἱ στρατευόμενοι μετ᾽ αὐτοῦ, ὃ ἂν δοκῇ ὑμῖν καὶ ἡμῖν, τὸν ὅρκον τοῦτον θέσθαι περὶ φιλίας καὶ εὐνοίας καλῆς, φίλους καὶ οἰκείους καὶ ἀδελφούς, [5] ἐφ᾽ ᾧτ᾽ εἶναι σῳζομένους ὑπὸ βασιλέως Φιλίππου καὶ Μακεδόνων καὶ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄλλων Ἑλλήνων, ὅσοι εἰσὶν αὐτῶν σύμμαχοι,
    κυρίους Καρχηδονίους καὶ Ἀννίβαν τὸν στρατηγὸν καὶ τοὺς μετ᾽ αὐτοῦ καὶ τοὺς Καρχηδονίων ὑπάρχους, ὅσοι τοῖς αὐτοῖς νόμοις χρῶνται, καὶ Ἰτυκαίους, καὶ ὅσαι πόλεις καὶ ἔθνη Καρχηδονίων ὑπήκοα, καὶ τοὺς στρατιώτας καὶ τοὺς συμμάχους...
    Quelle:
    http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/...3A1999.01.0234

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