Crimes in Stolac Municipality (1992-1994)
by Stolac Municipality
DESTRUCTION OF CULTURAL AND HISTORIC HERITAGE
ARCHITECTURAL MONUMENTS AND ENSEMBLES
1. Sultan SelimÕs Mosque
in Stolac (EmperorÕs Mosque). built in 1519, and considered to be one of the oldest mosques in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The base is square, with sides of 16.55 x 9.25 meters on inner edges of the building. The minaret, a stone prism, is 126 meters high. Walls of the porch and inner walls are decorated with flower patterns. The wall towards kibla and side walls are decorated with rich lewhas -- black on light blue background -- with excerpts from QurÕan in Arabic. The architectural ensemble includes a courtyard with a fountain, part of a cemetery with very old tombstones, gasulhana (quarters for ritual bathing of the dead), and a line of shops facing tepa (town center, old market area), which includes office of the old Muslim Community Board.
The mosque was registered as k.o. Stolac No. 1186, k.c. 2/219, surface 292 meters.
HVO soldiers burnt and mined the mosque in the early summer of 1993, damaging it considerably. In early august 1993, during a systematic destruction of Islamic architectural heritage, the mosque was mined again and torn to the ground. At the same time, all attached facilities were destroyed. The construction material left behind was later moved away.
At the time of the burning, HVO soldiers were accommodated in a nearby primary school. Some of them were Marjan (son of Nicola) Prce, Nikola (son of Vinko) Vojinovic, Zdravko (son of Ljubo) Pazin.
2. Mosque of Hadzi-Salih Buro
, later renamed Mosque of Ali-Pasa Rizvanbegovic in Stolac (Podgradska mosque) was built in 1732-33, in finely polished carved stone., and rebuilt in 1812-113. Sides of the interior of the mosque are 18.65 x 5.53 meters. There were three shops in the basement of the mosque, with arched doorways and entrances facing the market area. The prism-shaped stone minaret next to the mosque was 18 meters high. Windows were shadowed by stone coverings, made as complex geometrical decorations. The mosque was registered as k.o. Stolac No. 151, k.c. 1/487, surface of 250 meters. The mosque was burnt at 11 oÕclock, in the evening of 28 July 1993, and mined on 8 August 1993. It was torn to the ground, and the remaining construction material was trucked away. According to available testimonies, in addition to Marijan Prce, Nikola Vojinovic, and Zdravko Pazin, Rudolf Colic and Zdenko Beno, both from Stolac, also took part in mining the mosque.
3. Mosque of Hadzi-Alija Hadzisalihovic
(Mosque in the part of town called Cuprija) was built in 1936. There were a well and a fountain in the mosque courtyard. The stone minaret was octagonal and 15 meters high. The mosque was registered as k.o. Stolac No. 1182, k.c. 4/109, surface of 127 meters.
It was burnt on 27 July 1993, and mined on 2 August 1993. After it was torn down, the construction material was removed.
Marijan Prce, Nikola Vojinovic and Zdravko Pazin were accomplices in the burning.
4. Mosque of Ismail-Kapetan Saric
(the mosque of Uzinovici) was built in 1741, of broken stone, with four-sided roof, covered in stone shingles. Walls of the mosque were richly decorated. Recent research discovered two layers of wall paintings -- one from 18 century, with rich flower arabesque from in and around the mihrab, on inner walls, sofas, window niches, door-posts and lintels; even wooden pillars and beams on sofas and mahfil were decorated with carved and painted styled tendrils -- and the second layer from 19th century, with motifs of vases and flowers. Above the mihrab and in the corners of walls, there were beautiful nesh-talik inscriptions of names: Allah, Muhammed, Abu-Bekr, Omer, Osman, Ali, Hasan, Husein.
The architectural ensemble of the mosque included a well, a fountain, a school,. a cemetery, destroyed over time, and old cupress trees in the courtyard. The mosque was repaired and reconstructed several times: mimber was moved in the mosque in Pjesivac in 1974, and minaret was dismantled and reconstructed on a mosque in Crnici. In 1990, extensive work was initiated on conversation, reconstruction, and revival of the mosque complex. In the summer of 1993, the mosque was burnt and torn down. The burning was done by: Marijan Prce, Nikola Vojinovic, Zdravko Pazin, and others.
5. The mosque in Crnici
(Aladinici) near Stolac, built in 1939-40, and expanded and reconstructed in 1964. It was registered as k.o. Crnici, No. 40, k.c. 553/5, surface of 400 meters. In early July 1993, the minaret was damaged by machine gun fire by Perutina, Ante Perutina, and Bosko Prce, aka Boskan. It was destroyed in July 1993. It was burnt on 14 July 1993, and mined and torn down on 21 July 1993. According to available testimonies, this was done by, among others, Bosko Perutina, aka Bokan, Bosko Prce, aka Boskan, Ante (son of Marko) Perutina.
6. The mosque in Pjesivac
, near Stolac, built in 1973, registered as No. 61, k.c. 665/3, torn to the ground. It was burnt at the end of July 1993, and then mined in August 1993.
7. The mosque in Borojevici
, near Stolac, built after 1968, destroyed completely.
8. The mosque in the village of Lokve
, in Dubrave, near Stolac, destroyed completely.
9. The mosque in the village of Rotimlja
, near Stolac, torn down.
9. The mosque in the village of Oplicici
, near Stolac, destroyed.
The mosque in the village of Prenj
, near Stolac, burnt at the end of July 1993, and blown up in the night in the mid-August 1993.
1. Orthodox Church of Holy Assumption of Christ, in Stolac, built in 1870, with a bell tower on the entrance. A rosette with a six-pointed star decorated the top of the bell tower. A valuable iconostas from 18 century was in the church. The church was devastated in the summer of 1992, by HVO soldiers, who came in vehicles with Capljina number plates.
MEKTEBS (ISLAMIC SCHOOLS)
1. Mekteb with the mosque of Ismail-Kapetan Saric. Its reconstruction started in 1991. It was destroyed with the mosque.
2. Mekteb in the village of Osanici, built in 1925, burnt in July 1993.
3. Mekteb with the mosque in Crnici, built in 1897, destroyed with the mosque.
RESIDENTIAL ENSEMBLES AND BUILDINGS
1. Begovina residential ensemble, with houses, accompanying out-houses and other buildings (it included five overnight houses, one school, three housing facilities, etc.). It was built by the river Bregava, and belonged to the Rizvanbegovic family. Bregovina was built at the end of 19th century and, in view of its architectural and historic value, it was the most significant housing unit in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Bregovina was burnt to the ground in mid-July 1993. According to available testimonies of its destruction, it was done by Rudolf Colic with a group of HVO soldiers. The commander of a HVO unit in Bregovina at the time was Djuro (son of Ilija) Prce, aka Djuka.
2. Djul-HanumaÕs konak (lodge) in Stolac (MustajbegÕs lodge), a three-story building with courtyards and accompanying out-houses, by the river, opposite Bregovina. It was an architectural ensemble, joined by a small bridge, built in 1835. Its architectural value, the value of wood carvings and other interior decorations and its location, made it one of the most significant examples of Islamic housing architecture in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was burnt and torn down in mid-July 1993.
3. Behmenluk residential ensemble, with houses of the Behmen family. The most valuable was a three-story house of Hadzi-Salih Behmen, built in 19 century. It was destroyed on 25 July 1993 by incendiary materials.
4. Ada residential ensemble, which included gardens, houses, courtyards, and out-houses. Home to families Jasarbegovic and Ljubovic, built mainly in 18 century, with main features of Islamic architecture. It was completely destroyed by fire ignited by phosphorous materials. Burning and destruction were done on 16 July 1993.
5. House of Ismail-Kapetan Saric, an one-storey building, by the street and facing the EmperorÕs mosque, built in 1734-35. It was the most beautiful housing building in Stolac and one of the most beautiful in Bosnia and Herzegovina, It was changed when one part was separated and converted into an art-gallery. It was burnt and destroyed on 26 July 1993.
6. House of the Turkovic family, in Zagrad street, a three-storey building with a prominent oriel on the highest floor. It was built on a slope and looked like its natural part. It was burnt.
7. House of Ajisa Rizvanbegovic, in the Cuprija quarter, built in 18 century. Its shape, with open wooden porches on the ground and on the first floor, placed it in a group of few preserved Bosniak houses of that type. It was burnt and completely destroyed in mid-July 1993.
8. Zujina (SaricÕs) house, on the right bank above the river, in Cuprija quarter. A stone building covered with stone shingles, built at the end of 18 century. It was a beautiful example of houses in Stolac, with a complex division of space. The interior was decorated by numerous wood carvings. New owners began works on its reconstruction before the war. In mid-July 1993, it was burnt by phosphorous material.
9. Mufticevina residential ensemble, from 18 century. It was burnt in mid-July 1993.
10. Urban unit surrounding the mosque of Ismail-Kapetan Saric, Uzinovica street, from 18 century, with numerous building of value to its ambiance. It was destroyed. All buildings of architectural or historic value were burnt. Numerous other building owned by Bosniaks were also destroyed.
11. Cuprija urban unit, developed around the mosque in Cuprija (the bridge), on both sides of Bregava river, with numerous buildings of individual, architectural and historic value, built over three centuries, was also destroyed. All buildings of Islamic architecture were burnt and torn down.
12. Podgrad urban unit, developed around the podgrad mosque, often called Mala Carsija (the small town center) or Mejdan, in view of a large number of small shops and crafts surrounding a square near the mosque, and buildings of value to its ambiance, was also damaged. A large number of the most valuable buildings was burnt or torn down.
13. Zagrad urban unit, a street on the southern slope, under the medieval fortress Vidoski grad, with numerous buildings adding to the ambiance, was considerably damaged, since all buildings with features of Islamic architecture were burnt or torn down.
URBAN ENSEMBLES AND MONUMENTS
1. Stara tepa, the oldest square (market), an area in front of the EmperorÕs mosque courtyard. Carsija, the market area, developed around it, with shops and offices, including the office of the Muslim Community Board of Stolac. It represented an urban ensemble of cultural and historic value. Tepica, a small building, used for scales and measurements, built in 17 century -- the only other existed in Mostar -- was in the center. All the buildings of the unit were torn down in July 1993.
2. Silhadar Husein PasaÕs konak in tepa, the oldest lodge in Stolac, built in early 17 century, in carved stone, with clear medieval Mediterranean shapes and a seal of Islamic architecture. It was destroyed in mid-July 1993, together with Tepa.
3. Hamam (bath), built in early 17 century, one of few buildings of the kind preserved in B&H, a highest-category monument of architectural heritage. Torn down after the expulsion of Bosniaks from Stolac.
4. Hotel Bregava, built in 1979, designed by Zlatko Ugljen, a distinguished architect. The most successful application of traditional Stolac design in modern architecture. Burnt in 1992.
5. Gradska kafana (city cafe), housing and office block, build in 1986, designed by Emir Buzaljko. A significant attempt to return to traditional architecture, and the specific features of Stolac. Destroyed in July 1993.
6. Nova tepa (new market), a business complex, with a new market, built in 1990, designed by Emir Buzaljko. An addition to the EmperorÕs mosque complex, with a new market, which was the most significant building of the unit. Burnt and destroyed in summer 1993.