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Marko Boqaris der Leonidas

Erstellt von bumbum, 08.05.2009, 14:21 Uhr · 310 Antworten · 15.184 Aufrufe

  1. #191

    Registriert seit
    11.02.2009
    Beiträge
    1.262
    Zitat Zitat von Balkanmensch Beitrag anzeigen
    manche Nennen dich dummdumm, manche anders.
    Aber ich habe kein anderes Volk gelesen, daß so wenig Substanz aufzuweisen hat, und sich ständig im Kreise dreht, immer und immer die gleichen Inhalte vorsingt, als wären es Papageien.

    Irgendwie tut ihr mir inzwischen leid.
    Wer keine Argumente hat greift zu Beleidigungen zurück.

    Deine chauvinistische Einstellung interessiert mich nicht.

    bumbum

  2. #192
    Avatar von alba_mafia

    Registriert seit
    20.01.2008
    Beiträge
    1.854
    Zitat Zitat von Balkanmensch Beitrag anzeigen
    manche Nennen dich dummdumm, manche anders.
    Aber ich habe kein anderes Volk gelesen, daß so wenig Substanz aufzuweisen hat, und sich ständig im Kreise dreht, immer und immer die gleichen Inhalte vorsingt, als wären es Papageien.

    Irgendwie tut ihr mir inzwischen leid.
    wie viele albaner kennst du? 10? 15? und dann redest du vom ganzen volk? lass es balkanmensch

  3. #193

    Registriert seit
    27.07.2009
    Beiträge
    778
    Zitat Zitat von Opala Beitrag anzeigen
    Die Danaer kamen aus Kleinasien nach Ägypten(dort wurden sie vertrieben) schließlich zogen sie weiter nach Kreta von da aus verteilten sie sich in Über die jahre im restlichen Hellas.
    das hiesse ja, die heimat der 'hellenen' liegt in kleinasien und afrika....?
    das deckt sich ungemein mit dem hier..
    Examines the claims of Professor Martin Bernal who questions the assumption of the "Europeaness" of our civilisation placing instead the "black" Egyptians and Phoenicians at the centre of the West's origins. Black Athena examines Cornell Professor Martin Bernal's iconoclastic study of the African origins of Greek civilization and the explosive academic debate it provoked. This film offers a balanced, scholarly introduction to the disputes surrounding multiculturalism, "political correctness" and Afrocentric curricula sweeping college campuses today.
    In his book Black Athena, Prof. Bernal convincingly indicts 19th-century scholars for constructing a racist "cult of Greece" based upon a purely Aryan origin for Western culture. He accuses these classicists of suppressing the numerous connections between African and Near Eastern cultures and early Greek myth and art. Leading classical scholars, on the other hand, contend that Bernal, like the 19th-century classicists he attacks, uses evidence selectively, uncritically and ahistorically to support his own Afrocentric agenda. They argue that cultural diffusion alone can't account for the distinctive achievements of the Greeks during the Classical Period. Black Athena can help students begin to distinguish between sound scholarship and cultural bias - whether inherited from the past or imposed by the present.
    Black Athena - The Fabrication of Ancient Greece

    Black Athena: the Afroasiatic roots ... - Google Books
    Zitat Zitat von Opala Beitrag anzeigen
    Wieso sollte er, wenn Homer über Achaier,Danaer,Argiver sprach wusste jeder was gemeint ist.
    aha, du sagst uns indirekt damit, das keine 'hellenisches' bewusstsein vorhanden war, und somit wuerde es erklaeren warum keine hellenen und hellas erwaehnt wurde/n.....

    Zitat Zitat von Opala Beitrag anzeigen
    Die Perser bezeichneten alle Hellenen als Yunan(Ionier,Athener) soll das jetz heißen sie sahen die Spartaner nicht als Hellenen an?Nein natürlich nicht.Aber du siehst so einfach kann man es sich nicht machen.
    700-800 v.chr.?????

    PS>die eigentliche frage, die keiner von euch grekomalakis beantwortete war folgenden

    Zitat Zitat von LouWeed
    seit wann existieren hellenen ueberhaupt?

  4. #194

    Registriert seit
    28.09.2008
    Beiträge
    23.630
    Zitat Zitat von alba_mafia Beitrag anzeigen
    wie viele albaner kennst du? 10? 15? und dann redest du vom ganzen volk? lass es balkanmensch
    okay, natürlich kann bei einer solchen Formulierung nicht die Gesamtheit gemeint sein. Tatsächlich habe ich Umgang mit einigen Albanern gehabt und habe weiterhin, auch mit Albanern, aus dem Kosovo kommend, und, bitte, wenn du es lesen möchtest, ich doch über deren Verhalten mehr als "geschockt*" war. Obwohl ich ihnen helfen wollte und ihnen auch wirklich geholfen habe, auch finanziell sehr entgegengekommen bin, wollten die mich noch zusätzlich verarschen. Also habe ich mich dann genötigt gesehen, der Normalität wieder freien Lauf zu geben. Und eben dieses Verhalten hat sich mehrmals wiederholt.

    Desweiteren habe ich aufgrund von Dokumenten und Unterlagen ein bestimmtes Einsehen in das albanische, auch in das kosovoalbanische Leben. Aufgefallen ist mir z.B., daß so mancher kaum 20 oder 21-jährig schon mehr als 2 Kinder hat, meistens 3 Kinder oder 4, aber arbeitslos ist, und natürlich einer Schwarzarbeit nachgeht, selbstverständlich als geringfügig Beschäftigter.

    -
    Das oben passt zwar nicht ganz zum Thema, doch wollte ich auf deinen Einwand antworten, weil wir uns bis dato die Köpfe nicht eingeschlagen haben, was auch so bleiben sollte.
    Du siehst doch ein, daß sich die Meinungsbildung sehr langsam entwickelt hat, und nicht abgeschlossen ist, nicht sein kann. Aber das oben war das aktuelle Bild, was sich mir bietet, den Statistiken sehr naheliegend.


    * der Begriff "geschockt" ist nicht im medizinischen Sinne zu betrachten, sondern im angelehnten

  5. #195
    Opala
    Zitat Zitat von LouWeed Beitrag anzeigen
    das hiesse ja, die heimat der 'hellenen' liegt in kleinasien und afrika....?
    das deckt sich ungemein mit dem hier..




    aha, du sagst uns indirekt damit, das keine 'hellenisches' bewusstsein vorhanden war, und somit wuerde es erklaeren warum keine hellenen und hellas erwaehnt wurde/n.....



    700-800 v.chr.?????

    PS>die eigentliche frage, die keiner von euch grekomalakis beantwortete war folgenden
    Du kommst mir jetz nicht wirklich mit dem Buch" Black Athena" an oder?

  6. #196

    Registriert seit
    27.07.2009
    Beiträge
    778
    Zitat Zitat von Opala Beitrag anzeigen
    Du kommst mir jetz nicht wirklich mit dem Buch" Black Athena" an oder?
    ok, sag mir mit was ich kommen soll....dna analysen?

  7. #197
    Opala
    Zitat Zitat von LouWeed Beitrag anzeigen
    ok, sag mir mit was ich kommen soll....dna analysen?
    Was möchtest du noch wissen über die Hellenen.

  8. #198
    Avatar von Caesarion

    Registriert seit
    17.08.2008
    Beiträge
    7.453
    Dann sind wir eben laut Louweed alle schwarz, dass macht ihn aber immer noch nicht zum Makedonen, HAHA

  9. #199

    Registriert seit
    27.07.2009
    Beiträge
    778
    Zitat Zitat von Opala Beitrag anzeigen
    Was möchtest du noch wissen über die Hellenen.
    hab ich doch gesagt.....

  10. #200

    Registriert seit
    27.07.2009
    Beiträge
    778
    Zitat Zitat von Greekstyle Beitrag anzeigen
    Dann sind wir eben laut Louweed alle schwarz, dass macht ihn aber immer noch nicht zum Makedonen, HAHA
    Laut mir nicht. . .

    von mir au kannst au gruen sein, leugnet aber nicht die tatsache (was auch der grund fuer den dialog war) das in der iliad und odyssey keine hellenen und hellas erwaehnt wird, warum?!

    ach so...und zu deinem kommentar....
    HLA genes in Southern Tunisians (Ghannouch area) and their Relationship with other Mediterraneans

    A. Hajjej a, S. Hmida a,*, H. Kaabi a,A. Dridi a,A. Jridi a, A. El Gaa1ed b, K. Boukef a
    a National Blood Transfusion Centre, Tunis, Tunisia
    b Laboratory of Immunogenetics, Department of Biology, University of Tunis, El Manar
    Received 23 December 2004
    Available online 10 February 2005

    Abstract
    South Tunisian HLA gene profile has studied for the first time. HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 and
    -DQB1 allele frequencies of Ghannouch have been compared with those of neighboring populations,
    other Mediterraneans and Sub-Saharans. Their relatedness has been tested by genetic distances,
    Neighbor-Joining dendrograms and correspondence analyses. Our HLA data show that both southern
    from Ghannouch and northern Tunisians are of a Berber substratum in spite of the successive incursions
    (particularly, the 7th–8th century A.D.Arab invasion) occurred in Tunisia. It is also the case of
    other North Africans and Iberians. This present study confirms the relatedness of Greeks to Sub-
    Saharan populations. This suggests that there was an admixture between the Greeks and Sub-
    Saharans probably during Pharaonic period or after natural catastrophes (dryness) occurred in Sahara.
    © 2005 Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
    Keywords: HLA polymorphism; Tunisians; Berbers; Mediterranean; Basques

    1. Introduction
    The HLA system is one of the most polymorphic genetic systems in humans. The investigation
    of HLA polymorphisms has provided valuable information for understanding the
    genetic relationships between populations from different ethnics. Alleles and haplotypes
    frequencies as well as the strong linkage disequilibrium between HLA neighboring loci
    differences are observed among several populations from different geographic areas. The
    comparisons between populations using genetic distances calculated from HLA allele frequencies
    have led to draw their history. The HLA markers are useful tools for determining
    the origins of populations.
    In the North African region, there were many population incursions, such as Phoenicians,
    Roman, Arab, Turkish and European, in addition to the original ethnic settlers. In
    pre-Neolithic times, The Western region (Maghreb) was first peopled by hunter-gatherers
    of a late Palaeolithic culture (Iberomarusian) extending from Spain to Morocco, Algeria
    and Tunisia and then by populations belonging to the Capsians [1,2].
    Berbers may be the descendants both of the Mesolithic Capsian populations, and of the
    later Neolithic people who possibly introduced the Afro-Asiatic languages. The Neolithic
    people spread from the Middle East to Egypt between 9,500 and 7 000 B.C. Since then, the
    first important invasion was that of the Phoenicians coming from the East Mediterranean
    sea-coast around 1,000 B.C, who represented almost one-tenth of the North African population
    at the time of the Roman Conquest, in 146 B.C. Berber kingdom declined under the
    impact of the Greek invasions (457–404 B.C), Roman Punic wars (246–266 B.C), and
    Roman Settlements in the area. Arabs coming from the Middle East invaded the area during
    7–8th centuries.A massive Bedouin immigration also occurred in the 11th century [3].
    Other immigrants came from the North (Andalusians, Romanians) and from the South
    (black slaves from Sudan). All these populations probably contributed to the present Tunisian
    genetic pool. The present Tunisian population is constituted by the Berbers and Arabicspeaking
    groups. Also, in the South, Tunisian Blacks are clearly more frequent than in the
    North and their contribution to the southern Tunisian genetic pool is probable.
    The aim of this paper is to study the HLA class I and class II polymorphisms in the
    southern population from Ghannouch and to compare it with northern population, other
    North Africans, Europeans from several Mediterranean countries and Sub-Saharan populations.
    The polymorphism revealed by DNA typing is higher than that defined by serological
    methods. This allows us to discriminate the most of HLA class I alleles described in international
    nomenclature [4] and to provide a molecular basic for the future HLA studies.

    2. Material and Methods
    Eighty-two unrelated healthy individuals from Ghannouch (southern town belonging to
    Gabes, situated at 400 km from Tunis) were recruited. The origin of other populations used
    for calculation comparisons are detailed in Table 1.
    DNA was extracted from blood collected in EDTA using a salting out method after
    digestion with proteinase K [5].
    Generic HLA class I (A and B) and high-resolution class II (DRB1, DQB1) genotyping
    were done by Reverse dot blot technique (Innogenetics N.V., Zwijndrecht, Belgium) [6,7].
    In this technique, DNA was amplified using A, B, DRB1 and DQB1 primers labelled by
    a biotin at their 5’end. All the primers exist in second exon. The amplified product is hybridized
    with specific probes immobilized on nylon membrane. Then, the visualization of posi-
    tive signals is done by adding streptatvidin labelled with alkaline phosphatase to biotinylated
    hybrid. This enzyme metabolises BCIP/NBT chromogen in coloured precipitate. The
    genotypes were interpreted using INNOLIPA program.
    The HLA-A and -B allele and haplotype frequencies were estimated by maximumlikelihood
    (ML) using the computer package Arlequin v1.1 [8]. The Standard deviations
    (SD) were calculated from 500 bootstrap iterations [9]. The departure from Hardy–
    Weinberg equilibrium was tested at each locus by applying a Markov chain approach with
    100.000 steps [10]. The linkage disequilibrium between two alleles at two different loci,
    the level of significance (p) for 2 × 2 comparisons and also the relative linkage disequilibrium
    (RLD or D’), was calculated [11] by Arlequin. The latter was also used to estimate
    maximum-likelihood multi-locus haplotype frequencies from genotypic data through an
    expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm [12,13]. Phylogenetic trees (dendrograms) were
    constructed with the allele frequencies by applying the Neighbor-Joining (NJ) method [14]
    with the standard genetic distances (SGD) [15], by using DISPAN software containing the
    programs GNKDST and TREEVIEW [16,17].A three-dimensional correspondence analy-
    sis and its bidimensional representation were carried out using the VISTAV5.02 computer
    program ([18], http:/forrest.psych.unc.edu). Correspondence analysis comprises a geometric
    technique that may be used for showing a global view of the relationship among populations.
    According to HLA (or other) allele frequencies, this methodology is based on the allele
    frequency variance among populations (similarly to the classical principal components methodology)
    and on the display of a statistical projection of the differences.

    3. Results
    The hypothesis of Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium is accepted for all the HLA A, B,
    DRB1 and DQB1 loci. Fifteen alleles were examined for HLA-A locus in Ghannouch
    population (Table 2). The most frequent allele is A*24 (15.24%). This value is among the
    highest in Mediterranean region. High frequencies of this allele have been reported in Italians
    (14.1%) [19], Basques (10.4%) [20] and Sardinians (10.5%) [21], while it is rare in
    Sub-Sahara Africans [19,22]. The second most frequent allele is A*02 (14.63%). The latter
    is frequent in the most of populations; however, significant differences between ethnic
    groups were reported [19]. The A*29, which is frequent in Ghannouch (9.14%), is present
    at high frequencies inWestern Europe and, in particular, in the Iberian peninsula (13% in
    Spanish Basques) [20].A high frequency of A*6601 (4.26%) was observed in Ghannouch.
    This allele is very rare (even absent) in all populations tested [19]. A total of 18 HLA-B
    alleles were detected from which the B*50 (13. 41%) is the most frequent allele in Ghannouch
    as well as in other Arab populations [23–25], while it is infrequent in Sub-Sahara
    Africans and in Europeans [19,22]. The B*07, B*08, B*35,B*44 and B*51, which are
    common in Mediterranean populations [19,21,24,26], were also frequent in Ghannouch.
    The B*41 (8.5%), B*39 (6.1%), B*45 (6.5%) and B*52 (5.4%) are relatively frequent in
    Ghannouch. These frequencies are higher compared to other Mediterranean populations
    [19] [22]. Noteworthy is the presence of rare allele B*82 (1.83%) in this population. For
    HLA-DRB1, 13 alleles were detected, the most relevant result is a very high frequency for
    DRB1*0701 (28.65%). This frequency is one of the highest observed among all populations
    tested [19]. The closest frequencies for this allele were observed in Spanish (21.3%),
    Basques (19.4%) [21], Tunisians (20%) [24] and Moroccans (20.5%) [27]. A high frequency
    of DRB1*1001 (7.31%) allele was recorded in Ghannouch. This allele is very rare
    in northern Tunisian population (1.5%) [7]. The closest frequency for this allelewas observed
    in Sardinians (6.2%) and in certain Sub-Saharan tribes (Remaibe (8.9%), Nubians (6.6%))
    [19]. Nineteen alleles were observed at the DQB1*locus, among which DQB1*0302 is the
    most frequent (20.73%). The most relevant result is the low frequency of DQB1*0301
    (3.04%) in Ghannouch comparing to other Tunisians and Mediterranean populations
    [7,19,24].
    Two types of analysis were carried out to compare Ghannouch HLA frequencies with
    other Mediterranean population frequencies: (1) with HLA-A, B, DR and DQ data (Fig. 1)
    (2) with only HLA-DRB1 data (high resolution), which is probably a more informative and
    discriminating methodology (Figs. 2 and 3).
    These two types of analysis were both performed because some of the populations used
    for comparisons lacked HLA-A and B data [Lebanese (NS, kZ, andY), Moroccans-Agadir,
    Jews (Ashkenazi, Moroccans), French-Rennes, Tunisians], genericDQ[Greeks and Greeks-
    Cyprus], or high-resolution HLA-DRB1 data [Portuguese, Turks]. These partially HLAtyped
    populations should have been ignored, but they could be analysed conjointly taking
    in account only either DRB1 or generic A, B, DR and DQ frequencies (Table 2, Figs. 2
    and 3).

    Fig. 1. Neighbor-Joining dendrogram showing relatedness between Ghannouch and other populations. Standard genetic distances (SGD) between populations were calculated by using generic HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 and DQB1 genotyping. Data from other populations were taken from references detailed in Table 1. Bootstrap values
    from 1.000 replicates are shown.


    Results obtained by using HLA-A, B, DR andDQdata differ slightly from those obtained
    by only DRB1data [23,28,29]. In fact, the Neighbor-Joining tree constructed with HLA-A,
    B, DR and DQ allele frequencies (Fig. 1) shows lower bootstrap values. This is probably
    due to that one HLA antigen obtained by generic DNA typing may contain several HLA
    alleles, while this is not the case for most DRB1 alleles. This phenomenon can homogenize
    the comparisons.
    The Fig. 2 depicts an HLA-DRB1 Neighbor-Joining tree. The latter shows that there is a
    smooth gradient of relatedness betweenWestern to Eastern Mediterranean populations; on
    each side the groups tend to cluster together. The Neighbor-Joining present three main
    branches with high bootstrap values: the first one groups Western Mediterraneans (both
    Europeans and North Africans, including Ghannouch). The second branch is formed by
    Eastern Mediterraneans (and Moroccan Jews). The third one includes the Greeks and Sub-
    Saharan populations.
    It is clear that the Ghannouch are closer toWestern Mediterraneans (both Europeans and
    North Africans) than to Eastern Mediterraneans. Ghannouch population shows the closest
    genetic distance with Moroccans-Agadir (Berbers) followed by Basques-Arratia (9.12 10–2),
    Spaniards, Moroccans Eljadida, Algiers, Basques and Tunisians. Thus, Ghannouch were
    relatively distant to Tunisians (20.73 10–2). The Ghannouch were separate from Eastern
    Mediterraneans including Arabs as Lebanese.
    The Greeks have been shown a substantial Sub-Saharan admixture [30,31].
    Bushmen and Japanese form an outgroup. On the other hand, the HLA-DRB1 correspondence
    analysis (Fig. 3) grouped together Western Europe-
    ans and North Africans, placing together Eastern Mediterranean populations except for the
    Greeks, who were putted together with Sub-Saharan population
    , and locating Bushmen
    and Japanese as an outgroup. These results correlate with those obtained by genetic distances
    and Neighbor-Joining trees.

    Fig. 2. Neighbor-Joining dendrogram showing relatedness between Ghannouch and other populations. Standard
    genetic distances (SGD) between populations were calculated by using high resolution HLA-DRB1 genotyping.
    Data from other populations were taken from references detailed in Table 1. Bootstrap values from 1.000 replicates are shown. Only Individuals with defined DRB1 subtypes are considered.


    4. HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 and -DQB1 linkage disequilibria in Ghannouch
    The HLA Ghannouch haplotypes (Tables 4 and 5) have been defined for the first time
    and allow us to compare them with those previously reported in other populations. The
    HLA-A-B, DRB1-B and DRB1-DQB1 two-loci linkage disequilibrium data show that the
    most frequent.
    Combinations are characteristic of Mediterraneans, particularlyWestern Europeans and
    North Africans. However, no high frequency haplotypes are found in Ghannouch. This
    may reflect the existence of a higher admixture of Mediterranean populations in Ghannouch.
    The most frequent extended haplotypes (Table 5)A3201-B41-DRB1*1001-DQB1*0501,
    A01-B51-DRB1*0402/03-DQB1*0302,A23-B50-DRB1*0701-DQB1*0303 andA29-B39-
    DRB1*0701-DQB1*0202 may characterize the southern Tunisian population and they are
    absent even in north Tunisian population (our own unpublished results). However, The
    other HLA-A-B-DRB1-DQB1 extended haplotypes found in southern Tunisian population
    reflect a basic Mediterranean background. Indeed, the A2-B50-DRB1*0701-DQB1*02 is
    present in Spaniards (1.2%), Italians (0.5%), Turks (1.3%) and Moroccan Jews (2%)
    [22,29,32]. A24-B8-DRB1*0301-DQB1*0201 is found in Europeans and frequently associated
    with A1 as in Spaniards (3.4%), Basques (5%), Macedonians (4.9%), in British
    (2.9%), Germans (4.8%), Yugoslavians (7.7%) [22,30,33]. The A2-B44-DRB1*0701-
    DQB1*02was observed in Basques (1.3%) and Pasiegos (1.6%) [33].A1-B52-DRB1*1502-
    DQB1*0601 is found in Macedonians (1.7%) [28] and partially (B52-DRB1*1502-
    DQB1*0601) found in Moroccans (1.5%) [23], Cretans (2.5%), Spaniards (1.1%) and
    Italians (0.8%) [19,22]. The A02-B44-DRB1*0301-DQB1*02 is also present in Cornish
    (3.2%) [19]. These haplotype results are concordant with those obtained by allele frequency
    analysis (genetic distance, Neighbor-Joining trees and correspondence analysis).

    5. Discussion
    5.1. Tunisians, North Africans, Berbers and Eastern Arabs
    Our study shows that Ghannouch population (Fig. 4) is related toWestern Mediterraneans,
    particularly, to North Africans and Spaniards. This result was confirmed by all analyses
    carried out in this study: generic and high-resolution Neighbor-Joining trees (Figs. 1
    and 2), high-resolution correspondence analysis (Fig. 3), high-resolution DRB1 genetic
    distances (Table 3) and haplotype studies (Tables 4 and 5). Western Mediterraneans are
    separate from Eastern Mediterraneans.
    The relatedness of Tunisians (Southerns and Northerns) to other North Africans is evident
    because all the North Africans share, with slight differences, the same history (as
    previously described).
    The southern Tunisians from Ghannouch, Northerns from Tunis, Algerians and Moroccans
    (Eljadida) are all related to Moroccan Berbers from Souss area (Table 3) and Tunisians
    Berbers (our own unpublished results). Therefore, the present-day North African populations
    are not genetically different from Berbers. In addition, Lebanese (Table 3) and Arabs
    from the Arabian Peninsula [23] show bigger distances to North Africans. This suggests
    that the 7th century A.D. Arab invasion (and even the 11th century A.D. massive Bedouin
    immigration) of North Africa does not deeply modify the North African genetic pool, in
    contrary, they relatively kept their Berber genetic profile. It may be due to that the number
    of newcomers from the Middle East was probably very low in comparison with the number
    of established Berbers. Therefore, southern Tunisians have kept their Berber substratum in
    spite of the successive invasions of the area by: Phoenicians (814–146 B.C.), Romans
    (146 B.C.–439 A.D.), Vandals (439–534 A.D.), Byzantines (534–647 A.D.), Arabs (since
    644 A.D.), Turks (1574–1957 A.D.) and French settlement (1881–1956) [34]. Also, the
    contribution of Negroid to the southern Tunisian genetic pool was low in spite of their high
    number in the South of Tunisia. This may be due to cultural barriers. Indeed, The most part
    of the Negroid live in small communities as those in Gabes (Mdou,Arram),Kebili, Tataouine
    and Mednine; however, Arab invasions (in 7th and 11th centuries A.D.) had clearly strong
    social and cultural effects. Indeed, Arabic and Islam are respectively the official language
    and religion of the southern Mediterranean countries. EvenTamazight, NorthAfrican Berberlanguage,
    was highly influenced by the Arab language [35]. Indeed, Tunisian Berbers speak
    Shluh (Chleuch), which is a mixture of Arab language and ancient Berber-language. So,
    Shluh has changed rapidly locally owing to the strong Arabic influence. Under the impact
    of the Arab invasions (particularly in the 11th century A.D.), a part of Berbers migrated to
    the southern mountains of Tunisia (it is the case of other North African Berbers) [36]. Now,
    they live in small isolates (some thousands) in the mountains of Tunisian South. The main
    ones are in Matmata region (25 km from Gabes), Tataouine and Djerba. All these Berber
    isolates are Muslim and speak Arabic in addition to Shluh. Thus, North Africans are genetically
    Berbers but culturally Arabs.

    5.2. North Africans and Iberian
    Many genetic studies (23, 33 and present study) show that Basques are related to Berbers
    (Agadir) (Table 3, Figs. 2 and 3). The admixture of these two populations (isolates)
    with the 8th century A.D. Arab invaders was very low even absent. Also, Spaniards are not
    genetically distinguishable from both Basques and Berbers, in contrary, they show close
    genetic distances to them. Moreover, many linguistic studies demonstrate that Berber languages
    have several similarities with present-day Basque and ancient Iberian languages
    and all have been included in the Na-dene Caucasian group languages [37]. These languages
    were widely spoken in Eurasia and North Africa. All these observations confirm
    that the genetic contribution of the 8th century A.D. Arab invasion in Iberians was low and
    the main part of their genetic pool came from North Africa (Berbers), but before the 8th
    century A.D. It was probably at after 10,000 B.C., when the Berbers were forced to emigrate
    to the northern Mediterranean coast during the hyperarid conditions established in the
    Sahara [28]. In summary, the present-day North Africans, Iberians and Basques are not
    genetically distinguishable from Berbers, and all these populations show big distances to
    Eastern Mediterraneans (Figs. 2 and 3) and Arabs from Middle East [23]. This suggests
    that they have a common Saharan origin and the main part of the Iberian-North African
    genetic pool came during the Northward Saharan migration. So, the 7th–8th century A.D.
    Arab invasion of the area had low gene flow, but strong social and cultural effects in both
    Iberia and North Africa.

    5.3. Greeks and Sub-Saharans
    Our study shows that the Greeks are separate from other Mediterranean populations and tend to cluster with Sub-Saharans (Figs. 2 and 3).
    This result confirms the Sub-Saharan origin of Greeks.

    The Greek/Sub-Saharan relatedness is probably due to that several quasispecific Greek alleles were also found in some tribes ofWest Africa (Rimaibe, Fulani and Mossi) and others from East Africa (Oromo, Amhara, Nubians).
    This observation suggests that there was an admixture between the Greeks and Sub-Saharans at an ancient time. The admixture has probably occurred during Egyptian pharaonic times.
    Indeed, ancient Greeks thought that their culture and religion came from Egypt. In this period, there was an influx of people to Greece represented by the migration of Negroid Egyptian dynasties with their followers (who were expelled) towards Greece [38].
    Other emigrations to Greece have probably occurred [31].
    Why Greeks cluster with Sub-Saharans as Rimaibe (Figs. 2 and 3).


    The latter is one from related tribes of West Africa (Fulani, Mossi and Rimaibe, Burkina
    Faso). The Rimaibe Blacks were slaves belonging to the Fulani and frequently mixed with
    them. The facials and skin colour parameters of Fulani suggest a Caucasian admixture.
    Moreover, many linguistic and cultural studies confirm that Fulani have several characteristics
    in common with ancient Egyptians, which suggest that they may come from pharaonic
    Egypt [31]. Also, Many genetic studies show that the West African and the East Afri-
    can tribes (Nubians, Oromo...) are inter-related. This is supported by linguistic and cultural
    evidences. Two types of ancient Nubians were described: reds and blacks, which may reflect a Caucasian admixture. The present-day Nubians are the descendants of the ancient Nubians that ruled Egypt between 8th–7th centuries B.C. [39]. All these observations confirm the relationship between Western African tribes and ancient Egyptians and thus between the Western Africans and Greeks. An other possible influx of Negroid people into Greece was occurred, when the weather of desert became hyperarid (5000 B.C.) [31].

    references.txt

    European Journal of Medical Genetics 49 (2006) 43–56
    European Journal of Medical Genetics - Elsevier

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