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Mittelalter - Makedonischer Lexikon aus dem 16 Jhdt.

Erstellt von Alexandrovi, 18.05.2011, 19:43 Uhr · 13 Antworten · 1.548 Aufrufe

  1. #1
    Avatar von Alexandrovi

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    Mittelalter - Makedonischer Lexikon aus dem 16 Jhdt.

    Record of the Macedonian language

    The texts presented for analysis in this article were produced by the Institut Detudes Slave, De L’universite De Paris in 1958, and are a study based on words and phrases from Macedonia in the 16th century. It is one of the earliest manuscripts written in a purely Macedonian vernacular tongue, and its content was collected from the village of Bogatsko, which is found in the region of Kostur in the south-west of Macedonia. The author remains anonymous and the only likely conclusion that can be drawn is that he may have spoken the Macedonian language natively or acquired it as an additional tongue due to living in close proximity to people who spoke it. The texts were written using the Greek alphabet, which was not uncommon in the Balkans during the Ottoman period, as similar examples with the Albanian and Vlach languages have demonstrated. Furthermore, the ‘Bulgarian’ label that was at times attached to the Macedonian language is employed in the texts, remnant terminology that had remained in use largely due to Macedonia’s former location within the Bulgarian Empire. Despite this, however, there can be no doubt that the dialect (and indeed location) of Bogatsko belongs to Macedonia, and not Bulgaria.



    Macedonia during the Middle Ages

    By the end of the 14th century, Macedonia had already been under Ottoman rule for a few decades, losing its status as a vassal state under the leadership of King Marko in 1395. As the greater region was finally deprived of any sense of liberty after the death of George Kastriot - Skenderbeg in 1444, forms of local state structure in Macedonia ceased to exist. This left the responsibility of retaining the culture, language and identity of the people with the religious institutions that were active in Macedonia at that time. The traditional influence of the Patriarchate at Constantinople that was prevalent during the Roman period had resurfaced again in the Ottoman Empire, as the latter looked to use the former to consolidate a single Roman Millet of Orthodox Christians within their domains. However, institutions such as the Archbishopric of Ohrid and even more significantly the hundreds of churches in Macedonia, played a pivotal role in ensuring the local culture, language and identity of the people would survive throughout the centuries of hardships.

    Despite the absence of written works relating to statehood, material of a religious and educational character continued to flourish, and Church Slavonic, an essentially Macedonian tongue that was initially developed for such purposes in the 9th century, remained the literary language of the Macedonian people. However, the vernacular tongue of the Macedonians had co-existed with Church Slavonic and matured over the years, demonstrating a remarkable resilience and stability, which earned its introduced as the language of church services in Macedonia. The Macedonians were faced with foreign interference in both their lands and institutions, but their language had been largely solidified, evidenced in the fact that spoken Macedonian from the 16th century has a far greater affinity to spoken Macedonian dialects of today than it does to Church Slavonic. For well over half of a millenium, the Macedonian language has basically remained the same.

    Vocabulary and Linguistic Characteristics

    The texts reveal distinctive local features that have tenaciously survived the ages, and are still present in a number of today’s spoken Macedonian dialects. This fact reveals the remarkable consistency of the Macedonian language despite the lack of state support or schooling until the 20th century. Below is a sample of words from the texts, along with linguistic characteristics peculiar to the language of the Macedonians.

    Animal/Food/Anatomy Terms - Mrave (Ants); Curvec (Worm), Sokol (Falcon), Vrapci (Birds), Golobi (Pigeons), Kokoshki (Chickens), Petel (Rooster), Ofci (Sheep), Kozi (Goats), Jagne (Lamb), Mechika (Bear), Elen (Deer), Lisica (Fox), Kon (Horse), Krusha (Pear), Meso (Meat), Sireni (Cheese), Jajca (Eggs), Vino (Wine), Sol (Salt), Zhito (Grain), Koska (Bone), Gas (Buttocks), Kuro (Penis), Made (Testicles).

    Unique and Loan Words - The word Galuhci (Mice) is used, which can also be said as Gluhci or Glufci, and Macedonians are the only people who use this word. The word Veligden (Easter) is used, pronounced with the ‘g’ in Macedonian only. Turkish loans are very rare, one example being Jorgano (Blanket).

    Dialectal and Jat Features - The Kostur region contains dialects that have retain several archaic characteristics, such as the word Ranka (Hand) rather than the more common Macedonian variant of Raka. An interesting trend is found in the use of multiple transitions of the Jat feature that is present in various Macedonian and Slavonic dialects. For example, the text employs the word Dedo (Grandfather) and not Djado, yet Hljap (Bread) and not Lep or Leb.

    Definite Articles - The typical Macedonian postfixed definite article is exhibited in words such as Krushata (The Pear) and Dushata (The Soul). It is also noted in the word Patot (The Path) for ‘the path’ , although as the case of Jorgano (The Blanket) demonstrates, the ‘t’ at the end can also be dropped, as in several of today’s Macedonian dialects.

    Words and Phrases, Unchanged for Centuries.

    Containing a rich glossary and in excess of 300 words and phrases, the texts demonstrate the strength of the Macedonian language through preservation. Following is a comparison of sentences between the texts and the Macedonian dialect of Bitola as spoken today.

    16th cent., Kostur dialect
    21st cent., Bitola dialect

    Gospodine, brate, da si zdrav, da si prost, ostavi ni da spime, ela da jame, i da pieme, dol da pojdime, da rabotime.
    Gospodine, brate, da si zdrav, da si prost, ostai ne da spiame, ela da jaime, i da piame, dolu da pojdime, da rabotime.
    Imate hljap-o da kupime, imate vino da kupime, ot koja strana da pojdime vo Bogasko.
    Imate lep da kupime, imate vino da kupime, od koja strana da pojdime vo Bogatsko.

    As can be clearly noticed, most of the vocabulary and grammar is identical.

  2. #2

    Registriert seit
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    aha, so was hat Institut für slawische Sprachen entdeckt? alle Achtung

  3. #3
    Avatar von Serbian Eagle

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    LAAAAAngweilig

  4. #4

    Registriert seit
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    du machst dich, mit jedem so einem versuch , euch slawen mazedoniens als nachfahren der makedonen hinzustellen thread , nur nerviger weil wir alle wissen dass ihr nicht die nachfahren seit da ihr eben SLAWISCH SEIT und die makedonen NICHT SLAWISCH sind/waren

  5. #5
    Avatar von Dikefalos

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    Zlatko alone home
    Von tag zu tag blamierts du dich um so mehrDas ist gut so....denn je mehr mist du postest...desto mehr leute verstehen wie dein pseydo staat tikt
    Danke goran

  6. #6
    Avatar von Гуштер

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    Zitat Zitat von Greekleon Beitrag anzeigen
    Zlatko alone home
    Von tag zu tag blamierts du dich um so mehrDas ist gut so....denn je mehr mist du postest...desto mehr leute verstehen wie dein pseydo staat tikt
    Danke goran
    Lern bitte Deutsch, es tut weh deine Beiträge zu lesen. Danke.
    Tut es sehr weh dass diese Sprache vor 1913 die meist gesprochenste in Ägäismakedonien war?

  7. #7
    Avatar von Dikefalos

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    Zitat Zitat von Гуштер Beitrag anzeigen
    Lern bitte Deutsch, es tut weh deine Beiträge zu lesen. Danke.
    Tut es sehr weh dass diese Sprache vor 1913 die meist gesprochenste in Ägäismakedonien war?
    Mouahahahhaha

  8. #8
    Avatar von Гуштер

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    Zitat Zitat von Greekleon Beitrag anzeigen
    Mouahahahhaha
    Truth hurts.

  9. #9
    Avatar von Dikefalos

    Registriert seit
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    Zitat Zitat von Гуштер Beitrag anzeigen
    Truth hurts.
    The truth hurts only when the truth is real

  10. #10
    Avatar von H3llas

    Registriert seit
    18.04.2010
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    Zitat Zitat von Гуштер Beitrag anzeigen
    Lern bitte Deutsch, es tut weh deine Beiträge zu lesen. Danke.
    Tut es sehr weh dass diese Sprache vor 1913 die meist gesprochenste in Ägäismakedonien war?
    welche?

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