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Wirtschaft Mazedoniens - Економија на Македонија - Economy of Macedonia (Rep. of)

Erstellt von MaKeDoNiJa e VeCnA, 12.04.2010, 13:50 Uhr · 1.240 Antworten · 118.299 Aufrufe

  1. #1091
    Avatar von Zoran

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    Makedonija: porezni raj – radnički pakao

    Marija Baševska
    16.09.2014.

    Foto: AFP / Robert Atanasovski
    Među zemljama regije, Makedonija prednjači po “aktivnim mjerama” poticanja stranih ulaganja. No suprotno uobičajenim pretpostavkama, “snižavanje cijene rada” i subvencije za ulagače nisu donijele očekivani ekonomski prosperitet, već samo su produbile socijalne nejednakosti.

    Makedonija zauzima vodeću poziciju na mnogim regionalnim, europskim, pa čak i svjetskim rang-listama. Na primjer, prema posljednjem Izvještaju o globalnoj konkurentnosti za 2014. i 2015. godinu, koji izdaje Svjetski ekonomski forum, Makedonija je među 144 zemlje na prvom mjestu u kategoriji najniže ukupne porezne stope za privatne tvrtke, zemlja ima drugu najvišu stopu nezaposlenosti u Europi, najnižu minimalnu plaću u regiji (143 eura), najvišu nejednakost u raspodjeli dohotka u Europi, te, od početka projekta Skopje 2014, i najveći broj spomenika po stanovniku u Europi.
    Slab i nesiguran rast makedonske ekonomije u proteklih se šest godina uglavnom oslanjao na građevinski sektor kojeg je snažno podupirala investicija vlade u megalomanski projekt Skopje 2014. Donedavno, Makedonija je imala najvišu stopu nezaposlenosti u Europi. Stopa je 1990. bila nešto iznad 20%, a početkom tranzicije prema kapitalizmu i procesom privatizacije, velik broj radnika je dobio otkaze te je nezaposlenost porasla na 35,6% 1995. godine. Nakon toga ostala je stalno iznad 30%. Kada je Državni zavod za statistiku (DZS) 2013. zabilježio pad nezaposlenosti na 29%, vlada predvođena strankom VMRO-DPMNE ponosno je objavila kako je ovaj “ogroman uspjeh” postignut zahvaljujući njihovim politikama privlačenja izravnih stranih ulaganja, poreznim politikama i aktivnim politikama zapošljavanja (APZ). U razdoblju od 2007. do 2009. godine, vlada je počela provoditi operativne planove za uvođenje APZ-a, uvela jednu on najnižih jedinstvenih poreznih stopa na dobit i dohodak na svijetu (10%) i smanjila stope socijalnih davanja. S jednom od najnižih ukupnih poreznih stopa na rad i velikim olakšicama i potporama za strane ulagače, vlada je najavila novo ekonomsko čudo u zemlji.

    “Aktivne” politike – statično stanje
    Sedam godina kasnije, vlada je još uvijek entuzijastična u pogledu rezultata politika koje je uvela, ali stvarnost nije ohrabrujuća. Unatoč ogromnim javnim sredstvima koja su utrošena kako bi se privukli strani ulagači i reklamama koje su makedonske radnike nudile kao jeftinu radnu snagu, Makedonija još uvijek ima drugu najnižu stopu izravnih stranih ulaganja u regiji, odmah nakon Bosne i Hercegovine. S druge strane, strani ulagači koji su odlučili otvoriti tvornice u Makedoniji vrlo često prema radnicima postupaju na način koji je ispod dostojnih radnih standarda, isplaćujući minimalne plaće (u nekim slučajevima čak i niže), bez dodatnih bonusa za rad vikendom. Ako se radnici požale ili nezadovoljstvo pokušaju iskazati javnom izjavom, akcijom ili štrajkom, uprava obično otpusti buntovne radnike. Najnoviji takav slučaj dogodio se u Drekselmaerovoj tvornici u Kavadarcima u Tikveškoj kotlini.
    Što se tiče učinaka različitih programa u sklopu aktivnih politika zapošljavanja, čak niti nakon sedam godina aktivne primjene ne postoje nikakve javno dostupne evaluacije njihovih kratkoročnih i srednjoročnih učinaka pripremljene od strane Zavoda za zapošljavanje ili neke druge vladine institucije. Postoje sporadične izjave vladinih ministara i reklame u kojima javnost može čuti brojke i priče o uspješnom zapošljavanju kroz programe APZ-a. No, javnosti nisu dostupne relevantne informacije o tome jesu li najviše korišteni programi unutar APZ-a, kao što su pomoć u samozapošljavanju, obrazovanje i prekvalifikacija, potpore za zapošljavanje itd., pomogli korisnicima da dobiju ili zadrže posao nakon što je program završio. Ali jedno je sigurno – nezaposleni korisnici APZ-a utječu na stopu nezaposlenosti barem u periodu u kojem su programi aktivni (obično od nekoliko mjeseci do tri godine).
    Prosječna realna neto plaća u Makedoniji je u padu od 2009. godine. Prema najnovijim podacima Državnog zavoda za statistiku, 2013. godine 71,5% radnika primalo je plaću nižu od prosječne neto plaće u zemlji (350 eura), dok je 29,2% radnika primalo plaću od 8.000 do 12.000 denara (130 do 200 eura). Podaci o niskoj razini otvaranja novih radnih mjesta, ekstremno visokoj nezaposlenosti mladih (51,7% 2013. godine) i visokoj razini dugoročne nezaposlenosti (82,5% ukupne populacije nezaposlenih) otkrivaju statično stanje u kojem jednom zaposlene osobe imaju tendenciju ostati zaposlenima, dok nezaposleni koji malo duže traže posao vrlo često ostaju nezaposlenima. Ove okolnosti imaju negativne učinke na nezaposlene, ali i na zaposlene, budući da stvaraju povoljne uvjete za kršenje radničkih prava. U posljednjih nekoliko godina javnost je svjedočila drastičnim kršenjima radničkog prava na štrajk i snažnom političkom pritisku na vođe i sudionike štrajka. Dobar je primjer nedavno najavljeni opći štrajk profesora u osnovnim i srednjim školama koji je organizirao Sindikat obrazovanja, znanosti i kulture. U manje od dva tjedna prije početka najavljenog štrajka, vlada je u ubrzanom postupku uspjela pripremiti i izglasati u Sobranju1 novi zakon o osnovnom i srednjem obrazovanju u kojem se jasno navodi kako će u slučaju štrajka profesori koji se pridruže štrajku biti zamijenjeni novim privremenim profesorima koji će umjesto njih raditi do okončanja štrajka. Ovim zakonom vlada na vrlo težak i manipulativan način krši temeljno, Ustavom zajamčeno pravo na štrajk kojim se izražava nezadovoljstvo radnim uvjetima i pravima.

    Još gore po prekarne
    Još jedna nedavno najavljena promjena u radnom zakonodavstvu snažno će utjecati na najranjiviju kategoriju radnika – one s nesigurnim (prekarnim) radnim mjestima. Nove zakonske promjene uključuju dodatna socijalna davanja koja radnici trebaju platiti (uz porez na dohodak) ako su njihova mjesečna primanja viša od službene minimalne plaće. Ove promjene mogu imati osobito negativne posljedice na radnike bez stalnog zaposlenja jer će u praksi smanjiti njihova ukupna primanja, budući da je malo vjerojatno da će poslodavac povisiti ukupna radnička primanja za iznos dodatnih socijalnih davanja. Vlada je ovu zakonsku promjenu najavila kao mjeru koja će pružiti socijalnu zaštitu i smanjiti nezaposlenost za kategoriju radnika koji su zaposleni na određeno vrijeme. Velika je ironija ovdje u tome da je upravo vlada subjekt na kojeg otpada najviše ugovora o zapošljavanju na određeno vrijeme. Prema važećem zakonu, radnici koji rade na određeno mogu uplaćivati zdravstveno i mirovinsko osiguranje u otvorene dobrovoljne mirovinske fondove, ali se njihovi, često niski, nepouzdani i neredoviti prihodi uglavnom koriste kako bi se podmirili osnovni životni troškovi. Kratak pogled na financijsko stanje Državnog mirovinskog fonda i Fonda za zdravstveno osiguranje otkrit će pravi razlog za najavljenu promjenu zakona. Naime, fondovi su već neko vrijeme u lošem financijskom stanju i jedva održivi. Nova obavezna socijalna davanja na dodatne prihode radnika pomoći će vladi pokriti deficite koje je sama stvorila neodgovornim trošenjem i antisocijalnim politikama, dok će mnoge radnike koji rade na određeno ostaviti s još nižim prihodima.
    Istovremeno, prema posljednjim podacima Državnog zavoda za statistiku, 10% zaposlenih živi ispod granice siromaštva, relativno siromaštvo naraslo je s 28,7% 2008. godine na 30,4% 2011. godine (posljednji dostupni podaci), a postotak stanovništva u opasnosti od siromaštva ili društvenog isključivanja dosegao je 50,9%, ili polovicu ukupne populacije zemlje. Prema posljednjim podacima Svjetske banke, Makedonija ima najvišu nejednakost u raspodjeli dohotka u Europi – 20% najbogatijeg stanovništva u Makedoniji prima 49% ukupnog dohotka, dok najsiromašnijih 20% populacije prima 4,9% ukupnog dohotka. Posljedice “aktivnih politika” čine se sasvim različite od obećavanih, barem po položaj radnika i građana, a oni naposljetku u kalkulacijama vlade ionako igraju sporednu ulogu.
    S engleskog prevela Lahorka Nikolovski

    Makedonija: porezni raj ? radni?ki pakao | Bilten

  2. #1092

  3. #1093
    Avatar von Makedonec do Koska

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    Macedonia: ODV Electronic' First Export Expected by the End of the Year

    October 1, 2014, Wednesday @ 20:15 in Business » INDUSTRY | Views: 21
    Director of the Directorate for Technological Industrial Development Zones, Viktor Mizo. Photo: Vlatko Perkovski

    German company ODV Electronic will built a production plant on the surface of 10, 000 square meters at the free trade zone between Struga and Ohrid in pring, offering a thousand new jobs.
    The investor has already started a trial production at a plant in Ohrid where it has recruited 25 people, and by the end of the year, it plans to hire around a hundred workers more. The delivery of the first products from Macedonia will take place by the end of this year, or the beginning of the next one.
    The dynamics and the activities related to the realization of the investment by the German company was presented today at a press conference by the head of the Directorate for Technological Industrial Development Zones, Viktor Mizo, ODV Electric executive director, Ludwig Baton, the company’s executive director for Macedonia, Ognen Cubalevski and the mayor of Ohrid, Nikola Bakraceski.

    According to Mizo, an adaptation of the trial production line has already been done in the existing facility in Ohrid.
    ODV Electrics executive director expressed content from the professional skills and capacities of those already hired to work at the plant, as well as from the support they have been receiving from all competent institutions in Macedonia as investors.
    According to Cubalevski, the trial production line in Ohrid is a temporary solution, and the main investment will be in the free trade zone near Struga, whose construction is due to start in spring next year.
    "So far, the company has invested the total of EUR 600, 000 for the first production line, with the expectation that by the end of the year it will conduct trial production. By the end of this year or the beginning of the next one we will start with the first commercial engagements, i.e. delivery of products from Macedonia to our clients," Cubalevski explained.
    He announced that the realization of the main Greenfield investment in the new zone will start in spring and take place modularly, in several stages, while during the first phase, around EUR 4 million will be invested.
    The mayor of Ohrid, Bakraceski, pointed that this is the first foreign investment in Ohrid.
    "I believe that this will be the right impulse for the development of the local economy, which will create new jobs as well," he said.


    Tags: ODV Electric, free trade zone, Struga, Ohrid, jobs, investment, German company, trial production, production line, Directorate for Technological Industrial Development Zones, commercial engagements, EUR 4 million, local economy



  4. #1094
    Avatar von Albokings24

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    4.751
    Kennt sich jemand aus mit Solaranlagen und deren verdienst bei Anlagen in Mazedonien ??

    Würde gerne in so Sachen investieren.

  5. #1095
    Avatar von Metho

    Registriert seit
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    4.456
    Zitat Zitat von Albokings24 Beitrag anzeigen
    Kennt sich jemand aus mit Solaranlagen und deren verdienst bei Anlagen in Mazedonien ??

    Würde gerne in so Sachen investieren.
    Vergiss es lieber. Gut gemeinter Rat von mir.

  6. #1096
    Avatar von Albokings24

    Registriert seit
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    Zitat Zitat von Žarnoski Beitrag anzeigen
    Vergiss es lieber. Gut gemeinter Rat von mir.
    Warum ??

    Wie sind deine Erfahrungen ??

  7. #1097
    Avatar von Makedonec do Koska

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    Macedonia and Moldova Sign Memorandum of Cooperation in Aviation

    October 6, 2014, Monday @ 21:15 in Politics | Views: 33
    Macedonian Civil Aviation Agency director Dejan Mojsoski.Photo:dejanmojsoski.mk

    Macedonia and Moldova will strengthen cooperation in aviation as envisaged in the Memorandum of understanding signed Monday in Paris by directors of the Macedonian Civil Aviation Agency Dejan Mojsoski and the Moldovan Civil Aviation Authority, Lurie Armasu.
    According to the Macedonian CAA, by signing the Memorandum of understanding both aviation authorities are deepening the cooperation in the use of resources in terms of qualified personnel, expertise in certain aspects of civil aviation and documentation.
    The Memorandum covers areas in terms of safety and security of air travel, training programs, examinations and licensing operations related to flying and airports, airworthiness and register, search and rescue as well as segments associated with national supervisory authorities and air navigation services , the CAA statement says.

    - See more at: Macedonia and Moldova Sign Memorandum of Cooperation in Aviation - Independent.mk

  8. #1098
    Avatar von Zoran

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    Dempo Group gibt Investitionspläne für Makedonien bekannt

    Labels: Industrie, Investitionen

    Das türkische Unternehmen Dempo Group will zwei Produktionsstätten in Makedonien errichten. Dort sollen künftig 300 Arbeitsplätze entstehen. Dem Plan nach werden im ersten Werk Verpackungen produziert. Dort sollen 3 Mio. US-Dollar investiert werden. In den zweiten Produktionsbetrieb, wo Marmor und Mosaiken hergestellt werden, sollen zwischen 2,5 Mio. und 3 Mio. US-Dollar fließen.
    Eigentümer Muzaffer Polat offenbarte die Pläne des Unternehmens nach einem Treffen mit Ministerpräsident Nikola Gruevski. Er war mit einer Regierungsdelegation in der Türkei um die Vorteile des Investitionsstandortes Makedonien vorzustellen.

  9. #1099
    Nik
    Avatar von Nik

    Registriert seit
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    Zitat Zitat von Makedonec do Koska Beitrag anzeigen
    Macedonia and Moldova Sign Memorandum of Cooperation in Aviation

    October 6, 2014, Monday @ 21:15 in Politics | Views: 33
    Macedonian Civil Aviation Agency director Dejan Mojsoski.Photo:dejanmojsoski.mk

    Macedonia and Moldova will strengthen cooperation in aviation as envisaged in the Memorandum of understanding signed Monday in Paris by directors of the Macedonian Civil Aviation Agency Dejan Mojsoski and the Moldovan Civil Aviation Authority, Lurie Armasu.
    According to the Macedonian CAA, by signing the Memorandum of understanding both aviation authorities are deepening the cooperation in the use of resources in terms of qualified personnel, expertise in certain aspects of civil aviation and documentation.
    The Memorandum covers areas in terms of safety and security of air travel, training programs, examinations and licensing operations related to flying and airports, airworthiness and register, search and rescue as well as segments associated with national supervisory authorities and air navigation services , the CAA statement says.

    - See more at: Macedonia and Moldova Sign Memorandum of Cooperation in Aviation - Independent.mk
    Moldawien?

  10. #1100
    Avatar von Zoran

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    Heritage: Macedonia is the best in the region by the index of economic freedom

    Labels: Wirtschaft

    According to the American Heritage Foundation and the Cato Institute, Macedonia has favorable position in reports on economic freedom.




    Macedonia has improved report on the economic freedom index of the Heritage Foundation, while the Cato Institute says that Macedonia is best placed country in the region.


    Macedonia is located at 43 place out of 186 countries in the report on the economic freedom index of the Heritage Foundation in Washington.


    We note improvement from last year, and behind Macedonia are Albania at 51 place , Bulgaria at 61, Montenegro at 68, Slovenia at 74, Croatia at 87, Serbia at 95, BiH at 101 and Greece at 119 place.



    Macedonia is on good track to improve regulatory efficiency and strengthen the rule of law. We also know that young people particularly want to have more dynamic labor market. The reform of the labor market and the continuous improvement of the policy on the open market will be very useful for the Macedonian economy, explained Kim Anthony, expert from the Heritage Foundation.


    According Heritage Foundation and Kato Institute, Macedonia has the best monetary policy, while as worst is assessed the judicial protection of property rights.


    Macedonia with score of 7.02 was found at 72 place at the report from Kato, out of 152 countries in the world and lags by about one point behind the 10 most developed economies.


    -Macedonia is doing better than nine years ago. In 2005, Macedonia was ranked 90 and this year is 72. Macedonia is ahead before Bosnia and Herzegovina, even before Russia and Italy. This is good news, says Dalibor Rohach-expert from the Cato Institute.


    From the Cato Institute pointed out that the data used in this report for economic freedom are from 2012.


    - - - Aktualisiert - - -

    Kromberg & Schubert will build another plant in Bitola

    Labels: Industrie, Investitionen

    The German company “Kromberg & Schubert” will soon begin construction of its 23 factory in the world.






    The new factory will be built in Bitola, particularly in the industrial zone Zhabeni, located near to the border crossing Medzitlija with neighboring Greece, writes Nova Makedonija.


    With nearly 2,500 current employees and 2,000 workers planned, the new company would become one of the largest employers not only in Bitola, but also in the region and would employ more workers then the largest power plant in the state, REK “Bitola”, where are working about 3,000 employees.



    The possibility that “Kromberg & Schubert” intends to build new plant in Bitola, which will employ at least 2,000 workers, was announced by the Bitola Mayor Vladimir Talevski after meeting with the new German Ambassador to Macedonia, Christina D. Althauzer.


    - These days, I received information that “Kromberg & Schubert” are seriously considering soon to start building new factory, which would be within already existing plant, located in the industrial zone Zhabeni, or in its immediate vicinity, noted Taleski.


    The existing factory in the “Kromberg & Schubert”, which is producing ​​cables for automotive vehicle “Audi”, “Morris Mini”, “BMW” and “Mercedes” is already operating with over 2,200 workers, tending their number by the end of the year to reach 2,500 workers.


    The plant has consistently announced call for admission of new workers and training and interviews of those who apply for work.


    If the new factory is built in the industrial zone Zhabeni it will employ more than 2,000 workers, bringing the total number of workers working in the factories of “Kromberg & Schubert” in Bitola at 4,500 workers.


    This facility will be the largest in Bitola, which according to its meaning will not be less significant than REK “Bitola”, which according to the number of employees without doubt currently is the biggest capacity in Bitola – highlighted Mayor of Bitola.


    The German company “Kromberg & Schubert” is family company from the automotive industry, which has successful history and development of more than 110 years.


    It is today one of the world leaders in producing cable wiring, plastic technology and mechatronic, which has 27 thousand employees in 22 factories worldwide.




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