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EU-Bericht über das Albanerdasein in Griechenland

Erstellt von Albanesi2, 06.12.2005, 19:03 Uhr · 3 Antworten · 653 Aufrufe

  1. #1

    Registriert seit

    EU-Bericht über das Albanerdasein in Griechenland

    The Albanian arvanite/in Greece
    (Arvanitika- Arvanit(ë) - Arbricht(e) in central and southernmost Greece, Shqip in Greece of North)

    Introduction to the language
    The language in the country where it is spoken
    General data on the speech community
    Geographical, demographic and linguistic description
    General history of the area and the language
    Legal statute and official policy
    Presence and use of the language by fields
    Legal authorities
    Official authorities and services
    Mass media and technologies information
    Cultural production and industries
    The business world
    Family and social use of the language
    Transborder exchanges


    1. Introduction to the language

    This heading does not contain data for this language.


    2. The language in the country where it is spoken

    This heading does not contain data for this language.


    2.1. General data on the Speech community

    This heading does not contain data for this language.


    2.2. Geographical, demographic and linguistic description

    One detects traces of the Albanian presence in Greece between XIe and XIIe century. However, it is between 1350 and 1450 that seat the principal migratory current took, when princes and sovereigns Byzantine, Catalan, florentins and Venetian invited the Albanians to settle in the sorry and little populated areas of central and southernmost Greece. Of aucuns even think that of the military rehandlings in the area would have contributed to migratory flow.

    The migrations continued at the time Othoman not only with Christian colonists but also with Moslems. During all the XIXe century and during the first decades of the XXe century, a consequent number of Albanian Christians settled in the Greek State, in particular in the areas albanophones. All these populations are to some extent the "ancestors" of Arvanites in central and southernmost Greece.

    With the wire of the centuries, Arvanites were grécophonisèrent and hellénisèrent more and more, as well as allowed them at the same time their orthodoxe Christian religion and the cultural features which they divided with the other Balkan people. With regard to the language, one had also been able to observe the opposite process, until the beginning of this century and a small scale. Two essential factors contributed to work the identity of Arvanites: the Othoman policy of the millets and the social prestige which exerted the Greek identity and the culture. The birth of the modern Greek State engaged a process of assimilation of the peripheral languages, in which the school system and the military service played a decisive part. The dynamic presence of Arvanites in the wheels of the administration and the political life, being combined with the late character of the process of national construction in Albania, contributed to forge the image which the community offers today.

    Until 1940, largely widespread name officially and to indicate Arvanites and their language was respectively Albanian or Gréco-Albanian and Albanian or gréco-Albanian, even if they were regarded as a component of the Greek nation. It is in this direction that one attended (until 1900) attempts to found a state gréco-Albanian. It is advisable to add that the terms "Arvanitès", "Arvanitia", are also réfèraient at the time with the Albanian and Albania.

    The Greek State and the administrative machinery did not exert pressures to encourage the hellenisation of Arvanites, as one had been able to see it in other cases in Balkans, this one being already operated fact even of the history. The problem was that of the linguistic assimilation and in the past, of the coercive mechanisms were implemented in this direction.
    Arvanites were formerly extremely preserving, which was translated in the past by royalist standpoint and the attachment of a good part of them with the orthodoxe Church of old-calendaristes. The consecutive urbanization with the Second World war constituted another factor which played its part in the retreat of the language, in particular in the areas where the population was homogeneous. We have rather complete information on the expansion of Albanian at the previous centuries then on its retreat.


    2.3. General history of the area and the language

    Independently of the degree of retreat of the language, a data which is fundamental, we will describe below the storage areas of Arvanites today. To give an outline of the disparities which appear in the use of the language according to areas', let us note by way of example that in 1993, whereas in Angelokastro (department of Corinthie), the majority of the old individuals of more than 30 years speak the arvanite, in Koklas (sub-prefecture of Trifyllia), one finds only three people old of more than 70 years which speak it. In the majority of the cases, by leaving their village, the speakers give up the language at the same time, even if the concentration of Arvanites in the new places of installation is strong. Thus, even in Thiva (Thèbes), only a negligible number of young people have an unspecified knowledge of the language; the same applies to Livadia, and that although speakers coming from close villages come to settle there continuously, when they are not whole villages, such as for example the village of mountain of Elikonas, from which the inhabitants in their totality came to settle in Livadia. It goes without saying one meets speakers, to quote only these examples, as well in Atalandi in Phtiotide as in Desfina in Focide. Let us note that the majority of the villages of central and southernmost Greece are homogeneous.

    With. The distribution of the arvanite spoken by Arvanites (Arbëror) about central and southernmost Greece, by departments arises as follows:

    Attic: the major part of the villages are arvanites. At the beginning of the century, all the villages, except for Migara and another smaller village, were arvanites, just as certain districts of Athens. It goes without saying that the considerable concentration of population in Attic completely upset this state of affairs.
    Eubée: except for Alivéri and Karistos, practically all villages of the sub-prefecture of Karistos, below a Achladéri-Prinia line, in other words a very wide surface, in the southernmost part of the island.
    Cyclades: in the island of Andros, more than 10 villages, in the northern part.
    Corinthie: approximately 70 villages, located as a majority at the east of the department.
    Argolide: 30 to 35 villages almost all located at the east of Argos and in the sub-prefecture of Hermioni.
    Achaïe: less than 20 villages all located at the west, except one. [ the language was lost in the area of the Panahaïko mount ]
    Messénie: approximately 20 villages in the sub-prefecture of Trifyllia.
    Arcadie: a village.
    [ Elides, Laconie: the language completely disappeared Elides some, around the years 1940, whereas in Laconie, one finds some rare speakers old. ]
    Pirée: all villages of the sub-prefecture of Trézène, islands of Salamine, Anguistri, Hydra and Spetses.
    Béotie: more than 60 villages, majority located in the sub-prefecture of Thiva.
    Phtiotide: 6 to 7 villages in the south-eastern part of the department. B. The group which arrives second-rate at the numerical point of view is consisted Arvanites de Tsamouria in Epirus.
    They constitute the southernmost limit of expansion of the Albanian language, where is spoken dialectal the variety known as tsam. This important population answers in the name of Tchams and the area where it is established is called Ts(i)amiko. Tchams Moslems emigrated massively in Albania, at the end of the Second World war. The majority of them having collaborated with the occupying forces, the remainder of the population was led to exert reprisals and Tchams was expelled by Greek Resistance. Today, one hardly counts more than 100 on 150 subjects Tchams Moslems in Greece.
    The Christian speakers of the variety dilaectale tcham, as for them, are established in the following departments:

    Thesprotie: they occupy the major part of the department, and are primarily installed in the border area with Albania.
    Prévéza: in the part of the department of Prévéza bordering on Thesprotie (Prévézaniko) and in some villages in north on Thesprotiko.
    Ioannina: rare villages in the zone bordering on Thesprotie and the department of Prévéza [ a village located at the north of Konitsa is also albanophone ].
    It is advisable to note here that the inhabitants of the zones above feel reluctant to indicate themselves like Tchams. Today, this denomination applies primarily to the Moslems who lived the area before.[/b]C. The third group of Arvanites includes/understands refugees of Eastern Thrace, who settled in Greece after 1920. They indicate themselves like Shqiptar, which constitutes an index of the posterior character of their migration.

    Today, they are installed in the following departments:

    Evros: 4 homogeneous villages and 14 mixed villages
    Rhodope: 1 village
    Xanthi: 3 villages
    Serrès: 5 villages
    Thessalonique: 1 village
    Kilkis: 1 village (taken refuge of Bulgaria)
    One counts moreover three villages albanophones in the department of Florina, although one meets some speakers in three other villages; a village located at the north of Konitsa is also albanophone: the dialectal variety known as tosque there is spoken.

    Albanian (arvanite) who is spoken in Greece belongs in his totality to the tosque dialect. The attempts of census and regoupement of the local speeches are far from numerous; as for the some studies which were carried out, they are not published. The arvanitophones of southernmost Greece set up the only linguistic group of Greece whose language was studied scientifically from the socio-linguistics point of view. What is sure, it is that in a rather great number of cases, the internal migration intervened at the time of the last centuries gave place to an extreme variety idiomatic in each area, as testify to them certain surveys carried out into the Attic and Béotie.


    2.4. Legal statute and official policy

    There never existed of legal statute governing the place of the arvanite. Until 1951, year when were listed in official statistics the speakers of other languages that the Greek, it was made mention of the arvanite, even if the figures were minimized considerably.

    Today, the services of the State are indifferent with regard to the use of the language. It is very rare to see appearing a dissuasive policy as regards the use of the language, and when such is the case, this one emanates rather from the bottom of the scale.

    [Return to the synopsis]


    3. Presence and use of the language by field

    3.1. Teaching

    The systematic policy of dissuasion concerning the use of the language, already relegated in the family circle, continued, by the intermediary of the teachers, until in the years approximately 1970.

    In the middle of the years 1980, in one or two villages and the framework of religious organizations, an attempt at language teaching to adults in the form of particular courses was born, but did not meet any echo among inhabitants.


    3.2. Legal authorities

    This heading does not contain data for this language.


    3.3. Official authorities and services

    This heading does not contain data for this language.


    3.4. Mass media and information technologies

    In rare cases and primarily on local stations, one can hear songs arvanites.Toutefois a remarkable series of emissions on the radio main road, it there has ten years, was perceived very negatively by the authorities.


    3.5. Cultural production and industries

    After 1981, government PASOK encouraged the creation and the rise of local religious organizations, the climate of the time being moreover a guarantee of tolerance for any attempt aiming to the safeguard of the peripheral languages. Thus, in 1982 is founded in Athens Association arvanite of Greece which develops an important activity and establishes a great number of appendices in the villages. During ten years, are organized a rather great comprising number of festivals of the songs arvanites and a semi-monthly review, Bessa, are published. The "line" of Association does not omit to underline the "unity of the people Greek and Albanian, since both derive from the grecopelasgic Greek tribe", adopting the point of view according to which "the arvanite is the mother language of the traditional Greek". This known as, the review comprises texts and songs in arvanite and chooses a double C-W communication, in Greek alphabet and Albanian. This movement which is primarily localised in Attic, Béotie and Corinthie, exists also elsewhere in a very sporadic way, such as for example in the village of Tihéro (department of Evros). One can read texts arvanites in several local newspapers (tales, songs) and the local communities organize conferences, of nature laographic and historical. Contacts are even made with albanophones of Italy. Since then, of the discs and the cassettes of songs arvanites are available. Let us note that a concert organized in Athens in 1987 met a hostile reception near the secret service. Let us announce moreover the publication of some rare works comprising of the songs and the texts in arvanite. Association declines in 1992, at the same time because of internal problems and of negative exogenic factors: rise of nationalism at the time of the business of Macedonia, arrival of the Albanian refugees. The last number of the Bessa review appears in 1994.

    On the level of the popular culture, at least until in the years 1950, there is a production of popular songs, a phenomenon which, in two cases at least, also was noted in the last decade.


    3.6. The business world

    This heading does not contain data for this language.


    3.7. Family and social use of the language

    The arvanite was considerably influenced by the linguistic environment grécophone and evolved/moved - in particular as regards the language spoken in central Greece and Southerner lasting about the centuries, independently of any contact with the Albanian communities and contemporary Albania.

    As in all the similar cases, the arvanite of central and southernmost Greece is influenced more and more in its morpho-phonology by the Greek. Thus it acquired a statute distinct from Albanian.

    After 1900, - and it is there a phenomenon common to all the peripheral languages of Greece the administration but also of the "spokesmen" of the community use and privilege in connection with the language of the theories and the denominations which aim to differentiate it from the corresponding official common language, so that this one is essential like an autonomous language. In parallel, one seeks to accredit the thesis of a poor and "not civilized" language, which would be moreover a "dialect gréco-Albanian". The impact of such factors on the retreat of the language could not be ignored in this case as in good of others in Greece; moreover, it is manifest that certain social processes and histories in fact played a more decisive part. In the same way, it would be abusive to affirm that disjunction with the corresponding national identity was induced by the factors in question, insofar as it has in fact never existed of connection between the two.

    The use of the language on a daily basis is not the fact that older generations, included/understood in the age bracket the 50 years and more, the latter constituting the qualified speakers. This use is usually limited on the scale of the village, a phenomenon which is not new, like with the exchanges of not-official nature. The younger generations use the Greek more and, secondarily the arvanite, in particular when they express an intimacy, and constitute the final speakers. Lastly, the age bracket of less than 30 years being, in its great majority, incompetent to be expressed in arvanite, the use which it makes of the language is extremely restricted.

    This situation of medium term relates to only the areas where the language resists, in other words the west of the Attic, is department of Corinthie, the sub-prefectures of Trézène and Hermioni, Béotie, some villages of the area of Karistos, and practically all Greece of north. In the same agglomeration, it is not rare to record notable differences in one family to the other.

    If it appears that in the areas where the population is dense, the language arvanite is maintained, of multiple factors invite to modulate the generalizing theories on the resistance of the language. Thus for example, in Attic, whereas the language is quite alive in the industrial village of Aspropyrgos, on the other hand, in the village relatively isolated from Ano Souli, no individual of less than 30 years is capable to express himself, would be this only in a rudimentary way, in arvanite. What is sàr, it is that, contrary to the other peripheral languages, one records a brutal disaffection in the ten last years.

    One recorded a relative renewal of the language because of massive arrival in Greece after 1990 of Albanian refugees, whose large fraction settled in the villages albanophones. Although this situation at all does not imply the common appearance of feelings of "appartenance" with the Albanians and Albania, - in fact, it is even rather the opposite which occurs -, it was the subject of negative comments on behalf of the Greek secret service.

    The general feeling of a poor and lower language and the conviction that the arvanite does not constitute a written language were carefully maintained by the administration, so much so that today even Arvanites cultivated adhere perfectly to these theories.


    3.8. Transborder exchanges

    Apart from the exchanges with the albanophones of Italy, the contacts with Albania were at least reduced; y made obstacle at the same time the relations between the two States and the negative attitude of the communities vis-a-vis to any form of relationship with the Albanian Albanians and State.


    4. Conclusion

    Today still, it is not rare to see somebody dissimulating his identity or its origin arvanite. The negative stereotype of Arvanite, synonymous with conceited, obstinate and bad, is always anchored in mentalities and the memories of the humiliations undergone at the school or the army are still long-lived at the older people.

    The contempt for the language, which initially rose from the official ideology, characterizes today the community in its crushing majority.

    The intellectuals of the community answered in this state of affairs by a largely widespread attitude in the linguistic minorities of Greece, it is with saying while endeavouring to show that the language comes from the old Greek, which is remainder an established fact for the grécophone majority. In same time, they undertook to found an indigenous statute of Arvanites, while overlooking the bonds which link them with the Albanians, bonds which are judged outrageants by the members of the community.

    In addition, the geographical crumbling of the communities had a negative impact on the creation of a form of collective identity, although mutual comprehension does not pose particular problems.

    The identity arvanite in the speakers of the language or the subjects originating in the community is perfectly compatible with the Greek identity and the conscience. Nevertheless, the energetic efforts implemented to safeguard and cultivate the language, at least when they do not emanate from official authorities, have all the chances to be perceived like "nationally suspect".

    Still let us note that the massive installation of Albanian refugees in Greece after 1990, while making obvious the linguistic relationship - since there is a partial reciprocal comprehension did not involve any change in the standpoint of the community with regard to the Albanians and the Albanian State.

    We can thus easily conclude from all these elements that, not only it does not exist problem of cleavage of the conscience nationale/ethnic of Arvanites, but more still that the question could not be even put like such. If a question arises, it is that of the safeguard of the language.

    And that because, as it appeared in this talk, no desire to preserve it is made day in its speakers or the subjects which result from a medium where the language is spoken, which results in the absence of any collective attempt, in some form that it is, in this direction.

    The absence of resourcing of the speakers of the arvanite is such as it makes today the this most vulnerable language of the peripheral languages which are spoken in Greece.


  2. #2
    Avatar von lupo-de-mare

    Registriert seit
    Sei mir mal nicht böse! Aber ich hänge diesen Thread in die Albanischen Nachrichten hier!

  3. #3

    Registriert seit
    So .....was willst du ?

    Ich in deiner Stelle würde langsam aufpassen....kauf dir paar Spielzeuge..und spiele damit , nicht mit mir..

  4. #4
    Avatar von lupo-de-mare

    Registriert seit
    Zitat Zitat von Albanesi2
    So .....was willst du ?

    Ich in deiner Stelle würde langsam aufpassen....kauf dir paar Spielzeuge..und spiele damit , nicht mit mir..
    Ist mir schon aufgefallen, das Du einen schlechten Tag hast.

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