1. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05: (Cyril and Methodius, Saints) 869 and 884, respectively, GREEK missionaries, brothers, called Apostles to the Slavs and fathers of Slavonic literature.
2. Encyclopedia Britannica, a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information:
Saints Cyril and Methodius:
The emperor chose two brothers, sons of a Thessalonian Greek, Methodius and Constantine (generally known as Cyril by the name he adopted upon becoming a monk) .[..] (Cyril who had)…been professor of philosophy at the patriarchal school in Constantinople, worked with Methodius, the abbot of a Greek monastery,…”
3. The Slav Pope John Paul II who in 31/12/1980 (in an official encyclical-Egregiae Virtutis-to the Catholic Church) and 14/2/1981(in the S.Clement church in Rome) said that Cyrillos and Methodios
were “Greek brothers, born in Thessaloniki”
4. the Serb historian V.Bogdanovich, says that “Kyrillos and Methodios were born in Thessaloniki and were Greeks in origin, not Slavs” (History of the ancient Serbian literature, Belgrade 1980, pg.119).
5. “The macedonian conflict: Ethnic Nationalism in a transnational world by Loring Danforth
“Then in the ninth century Cyril and Methodius, two Greek monks from Thessaloniki , developed the Cyrillic alphabet and spread both literacy and Christianity to the Slavs.
6. Two Greek brothers from Salonika, Constantine, who later later became a monk and took the name Cyril, and Methodius came to Great Moravia in 863 at the invitation of the Moravian Prince Rostislav (“Comparative history of Slavic Literatures” by Dmitrij Cizevskij, page vi)
7. the Byzantine court entrusted it to two brothers with wide experience o missionary work: Constantine the Philosopher, better known by his monastic name, Cyril and Methodius. Cyril and Methodius were Greeks.(“Czechoslovakian Miniatures from Romanesque and Gothic Manuscripts” by Jan Kvet, p. 6)
8. In answer to this appeal the emperor sent the two brothers Cyril and Methodius, who were Greeks of Salonika and had considerable knowledge of Slavonic languages. (The Balkans: A history of Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, Rumania, Turkey (1916)” by Forbes, Nevil, p. 21)
9. two brothers, the Apostles of the Sclavonians or Slavs, born in Greece and educated in Constantinople. (“Book of the Saints 1921″ by Monks Benedictine, P. 74)
10. Cyril, St 827-69 and Methodius, St 826-85, known as the Apostles of the Slavs – Greek Christian missionaries- They were born in Thessalonica. (“The Riverside Dictionary of Biography” by the American Heritage Dictionaries, p. 208)
11. two greek brothers, Cyril and Methodius, were sent in response to this request. This development was of particular importance to the formation of eastern european culture. (“historical Theology” by McGrath, p.125)
12. the byzantine emperor sent two greek monks, Cyril and Methodius, to spread Christianity to the slavic people.
(“Global History & Geography” by Phillip Lefton, p. 130)
13. As the Slav tribes feel under the influence of Byzantium a considerable number of them were baptised but they were first converted to Christianity in Mass by the Greek brothers, Cyril and Methodius (Black lamb and Grey Falcon: A journey through Yugoslave” by Rebecca West, P. 710)
14. “Cyrillus autem et Methodius fratres, Graeci, Thessalonicae nati…”Vatican: the Holy See
http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/jo…rtutis_lt.html Pope John Paul II.
15. Cyril and Methodius, Saints (muth..us) [key], d. 869 and 884, respectively, Greek missionaries, brothers (R. L. Wilkens book “Judaism and the Early Christian Mind” (1971))x
16. “Cyrillus autem et Methodius fratres, GRAECI, Thessalonicae nati, ea nempe in urbe, in qua beatus Paulus et degit et operatus est, ab usque suae vocationis initio arctas rationes institutionis spiritualis ingeniique culturae cum Patriarchali Ecclesia Constantinopolitana susceperunt”
17. Institutes of Ecclesiastical History, Ancient and Modern: Medieval Period by Johann Lorenz Mosheim, James Murdock – 1841
About the middle of this century, two Greek monks, Methodius and Cyril, being sent as missionaries from Constantinople, by the empress Theodora..
18. Loyola Kids Book of Saints Amy Welborn, Ansgar Holmberg – 2001
- The other important thing Cyril and Methodius had in common was that both brothers knew another language beside their own. They were Greek, but they were also familiar with the Slavonic language.
19. A history of the Christian church: middle age Charles Hardwick – 1861,
- In the same century St. Cyril and St. Methodius, Greeks by nation, sent by pope Adrian f I. converted the Sclavonians, Moravians and Bohemians
20. A cyclopedia of missions: containing a comprehensive view of missionary … By Harvey Newcomb
- The ninth century was likewise rendered remarkable by the attempts of Constantine, (or Cyril,) and Methodius, two Greek monks, to evangelize several Sclavonian tribes. They were the sons of Leo, a Greek nobleman..
21. Towards the healing of schism: the Sees of Rome and Constantinople : public … By E. J. Stormon
- Cyril and his brother Methodius were Greeks from Thessalonica,…
22. A Catholic Dictionary Containing Some Account of the Doctrine, Discipline, William E. Addis, Thomas Arnold – 2004
- The Bulgarians, a Slav people, had been converted in the middle of the ninth century by the Greek teachers St. Cyril and St. Methodius.
23. A Popular History of the Catholic Church Carl Koch – 1997
- Then the Byzantine emperor at Constantinople, with his influence over the Byzantine church, sent two Greek brothers to try missionary work among the Slavs in Moravia.
24. How the Bible Grew Frank Grant Lewis – 2003
It is attributed to two men who were brothers, Cyril and Methodius, sons of a Greek nobleman of Thessalonica25. Illustrations of biblical literature, James Townley – 1847
- in the course of the NINTH century many of them received the Gospel, through the pious and indefatigable labours of two Greek monks, Methodius and Cyril
26. A Critical History of the Athanasian Creed, Daniel Waterland – 2008
- Cyril was a Greek, and came from Constantinople ; and Methodius was a Greek too, both sent by the Greek Emperor to convert the country, which therefore became instructed in the Greek rites and religion
27. The Slavs: their early history and civilization, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1956
- The Moravian Empire and Its Greek Apostles SS. Constantine-Cyril and Methodius
28. “Lonely Planet Croatia” by Jeanne Oliver, P.35
In order to convert the Slavs to Christianity, Greek missionaries Cyril and Methodius learned the language.
29. “Book of the Saints 1921″ by Monks Benedictine, P. 74
two brothers, the Apostles of the Sclavonians or Slavs, born in Greece and educated in Constantinople30. “The Riverside Dictionary of Biography” by the American Heritage Dictionaries, p. 208
Cyril, St 827-69 and Methodius, St 826-85, known as the Apostles of the Slavs – Greek Christian missionaries- They were born in Thessalonica.31. “historical Theology” by McGrath, p.125
two greek brothers, Cyril and Methodius, were sent in response to this request. This development was of particular importance to the formation of eastern european culture.32. “Global History and Geography” by Phillip Lefton, p. 130
the byzantine emperor sent two greek monks, Cyril and Methodius, to spread Christianity to the slavic people.33. “Black lamb and Grey Falcon: A journey through Yugoslave” by Rebecca West, P. 710
As the Slav tribes feel under the influence of Byzantium a considerable number of them were baptised but they were first converted to Christianity in Mass by the Greek brothers, Cyril and Methodius34. R. L. Wilkens book “Judaism and the Early Christian Mind” (1971)
35. The Significance of the Missions of Cyril and Methodius, Francis Dvornik, Slavic Review > Vol. 23, No. 2 (Jun., 1964) page: 196
Cyril and Methodius, Saints, d. 869 and 884, respectively, Greek missionaries, brothers, called Apostles to the Slavs and fathers of Slavonic literature.
Moravian Christianity even had species of ecclesiastical organization before the arrival of the Greek brotherspage: 211
This short sketch of the cultural development of the Slavic nations in the Middle Ages seems necessary to show the real significance of the mission of the two Greek brothers. Its aim in Moravia was, above all, cultural36. Slavic Translations of the Scriptures Matthew Spinka The Journal of Religion > Vol. 13, No. 4 (Oct., 1933), pp. 415
When those ancient precursors of Bible translators, the Greek brothers Constantine and Methodius, translated certain parts of the Scriptures and the liturgical books into Slavic for the use of their Moravian converts415
Thus in a sense the two Greek brothers and their disciples fought a fight in behalf of all the later Bible translators and liturgical vernacularists, the English among them.pp. 416-17
In co-operation with Patriarch Photius they selected the renowned teacher of philosophy at the court school of Magnaura, Constantine, and his elder brother, Methodius, Greeks from Thessalonica, who were well acquainted with the language of the Macedonian Slavs, as best-fitted missionaries for the Moravian field.pp. 424
The Slavic liturgy was, beyond any doubt, a radical innovation which the Greek brothers
could not have justified except as an essential element in insuring the success of their work.
37. Comparative history of Slavic Literatures by Dmitrij Cizevskij
—————————————————————————————————————————————- 38. A History of the Greek Language: From Its Origins to the Present By Francisco Rodríguez Adrados page 265
———————————————————————————————————————————————– 39. East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500 By Jean W. Sedlar, page 144
—————————————————————————————————————————————— 41. Modern Linguistics By Simeon Potter, page 57
——————————————————————————————————————————————— 42. Yugoslavia: A History of Its Demise By Viktor Meier, page 182
43. Languages and Their Status By Timothy Shopen, Center for Applied Linguistics
44. Russian by Neville Forbes, page 10
45. The National question in Yugoslavian: Origins, history, politics by Ivo Branac.
—————————————————————————————————————————————————— – 46. A Handbook of Slavic Studies – Page 98 by Leonid Ivan Strakhovsky – 1949 –
An appeal to the Roman Emperor Michael at Byzantium in 863 brought two Greek brothers, Constantine and Methodius from Salonika.47. The New Oxford Companion to Music – Page 1076 by Denis Arnold -1983
Two Greek brothers, Cyril and Methodius, were sent. They prepared an alphabet for the hitherto unwritten Slav language; the script was called Glagolitic48. How the Bible Came to Us: Its Texts and Versions – Page 68 by Hugh Gerard Gibson Herklots – 1959
the ninth century of two Greek brothers from Salonika: Constantine — who took the name of Cyril shortly before his death at Rome in 869 — and Methodius49. Back to the Bible: A Literary Pilgrimage – Page 70 by Hugh Gerard Gibson Herklots – 1954
It was the result of the great missionary work in the Ninth Century of two Greek brothers from Salonika, Constantine —who took the name of Cyril shortly50. East Europe – Page 17 by Free Europe Committee, Free Europe – 1957
Turkey (RNS)—The relics of Saints Cyril and Methodius, Greek brothers venerated as “apostles of the southern Slavs” in the sixth century.51. The Two Faces of Greece: A Civilisation of 7.000 Years – Page 91 by Irene Economides – 1989
of the most famous Orthodox missions was that of the two Greek brothers from Salonica: St. Methodius and St. Cyril, who were monks of high education52. Merit Students Encyclopedia by William Darrach Halsey – 1980
St. Cyril and his brother, St. Methodius, are called the “Apostles to the Slavs.” They were Greek missionaries among the Moravians and other Slavic tribes53. The European Inheritance – Page 304 by Ernest Barker – 1954
The brothers Cyril and Methodius … It was thus two Greeks, born in Salonica, who evangelized and ‘alphabetized’ the mass of the Slavs (apart from the Poles, the Czechs,54. Reflections on Our Age – Page 169 by Unesco General Conference – 1949
Two other Greeks from Salonika, Cyril and Methodius..55. Russian Authors – Page 28 by Elsa Z. Posell – 1970
The Russian alphabet which is similar to Greek was invented by two Greek monks from Salonika, St’ Cyril and St’ Methodius.56. The Encyclopedia Americana – Page 25 by Grolier Incorporated -1998
by the 9th century Greek missionaries St. Cyril and St. Methodius and their disciples57. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East – Page 151 by Eric M. Meyers – 1997
which the Greek brothers Cyril and Methodius employed58. by Encyclopaedia Britannica, Incorporated, Warren E. Preece – Reference – 1972 Page 846
Invited in 863 by its prince, Rostislav, Cyril (Constantine) and Methodius, Greek monks from Salonika, came to preach the gospel there59. by Eastern Canada Centre of Slavists and East European Specialists, Association canadienne des slavistes – 1976 – page 73
As a matter of fact, Constantine and Methodius were not Slavs, but two sons of a Greek official..60. Journal of Central European Affairs – Page 308, 1941
Two Greek priests from Salonika, the brothers Cyril and Methodius, who knew Slavonic, were called from Byzantium.61. The Encyclopedia Americana, published 1970
Moravia received Christian instruction from Cyril and Methodius, Greeks from Salonika, who for their translations created62. Tito, the rise and the fall of Yugoslavia by Richard West
63. A Handbook of Slavic Studies – Page 98 by Leonid Ivan Strakhovsky – 1949 –
64. Encyclopedia of World Cultures – Page 239 by David H. Levinson – Social Science – 1991
During the ninth century, two Greek brothers from Thessaloniki (Salonika), Cyril and Methodius, were instrumental in the conversion of the Slavs