Isocrates, Speeches and Letters, “To Philip”“It is your privilege, as one who has been blessed with untrammeled freedom,
to consider allHellas your fatherland, as did the founder of your race
.”(Isokratis, Speeches and Letters, “To Philip” 127)“
Argos is the land of your fathers, and is entitled to as much consideration at your handsas are your own ancestors…
”(Isocrates, Speeches and Letters, “To Philip”, 32)“Now I am not unaware that many of the Hellenes look upon the King’s power as invincible. Yetone may well marvel at them if they really believe that the power which was subdued to the will of a mere barbarian–an ill-bred barbarian at that–and collected in the cause of slavery, could not bescattered by
A MAN OF THE BLOOD OF HELLAS
, of ripe experience in warfare, in the cause of freedom–and that too although they know that while it is in all cases difficult to construct a thing, todestroy it is, comparatively, an easy task.Bear in mind that the men whom the world most admiresand honors are those who unite in themselves the abilities of the statesman and the general.When, therefore, you see the renown which even in a single city is bestowed on men whopossess these gifts, what manner of eulogies must you expect to hear spoken of you, when
AMONG ALL THE HELLENES you shall stand forth as a statesman who has worked for thegood of Hellas, and AS A GENERAL WHO HAS OVERTHROWN THE BARBARIANS?”
[Isocrates, Speeches and Letters, “To Philip”, 5.139, 5.140]“Well, if I were trying to present this matter to any others before having broached it to my owncountry,
WHICH HAS THRICE FREED HELLAS-twice from the barbarians and ONCE FROMTHE LACEDAEMONIAN YOKE
–I should confess my error. In truth, however, it will be found that Iturned to Athens first of all and endeavored to win her over to this cause with all the earnestnessof which my nature is capable,2 but when I perceived that she cared less for what I said than for the ravings of the platform orators,3 I gave her up, although I did not abandon my efforts.”[Isocrates, Speeches and Letters, “To Philip”, 5.129]“The Lacedaemonians were the leaders of the Hellenes, not long ago, on both land and sea, andyet they suffered so great a reversal of fortune when they met defeat at Leuctra that they weredeprived of their power over the Hellenes, and lost such of their warriors as chose to die rather than survive defeat at the hands of those over whom they had once been masters.”[Isocrates, Speeches and Letters, “To Philip”, 5.47]“As I continued to say many things of this tenor, those who heard me were inspired with the hopethat when my discourse should be published you and the Athenians would bring the war to anend, and, having conquered your pride, would adopt some policy for your mutual good. Whether indeed they were foolish or sensible in taking this view is a question for which they, and not I, mayfairly be held to account; but in any case, while I was still occupied with this endeavour, you andAthens anticipated me by making peace before I had completed my discourse; and you were wisein doing so, for to conclude the peace, no matter how, was better than to continue to beoppressed by the evils engendered by the war.  But although I was in joyful accord with theresolutions which were adopted regarding the peace, and was convinced that they would be
beneficial, not only to us,
BUT ALSO TO YOU AND ALL THE OTHER HELLENES,
I could notdivorce my thought from the possibilities connected with this step, but found myself in a state of mind where I began at once to consider how the results which had been achieved might be madepermanent for us, and how our city could be prevented from setting her heart upon further wars,after a short interval of peace.”[Isocrates, Speeches and Letters, “To Philip”, 5.8]Isocrates, “Panigirikos”“*…How could they (the Macedonians) prove themselves more philhellines with what they did soas the rest (the other Greeks) would not be occupied…”(Isocrates, Panigirikos, 96)
The country by the sea which is now called Macedonia…
Alexander, the father of Perdiccas,and his forefathers, who were originally Temenidae from Argos
”(Thucydides 99,3)“In all there were about
three thousand Hellenic heavy infantry, accompanied by all theMacedonian cavalry with the Chalcidians, near one thousand strong, besides an immensecrowd of barbarians
The Hellenic troops with him consisted
of the Ambraciots, Leucadians, and Anactorians, andthe thousand Peloponnesians with whom he came; the barbarian of a thousand Chaonians, who,belonging to a nation that has no king, were led by Photys and Nicanor, the two members of theroyal family to whom the chieftainship for that year had been confided. With the Chaonians camealso some Thesprotians, like them without a king, some Molossians and Atintanians led bySabylinthus, the guardian of King Tharyps who was still a minor, and some Paravæans, under their king Oroedus, accompanied by a thousand Orestians, subjects of King Antichus and placedby him under the command of Oroedus.
There were also a thousand Macedonians sent byPerdiccas without the knowledge of the Athenians
, but they arrived too late. With this forceCnemus set out, without waiting for the fleet from Corinth. Passing through the territory of Amphilochian Argos, and sacking the open village of Limnæa, they advanced to Stratus theAcarnanian capital; this once taken, the rest of the country, they felt convinced, would speedilyfollow”(Thucydides Chapter VIII)
Now that the men of this family are Hellenes
, sprung from Perdiccas, as they themselvesaffirm, is a thing which I can declare on my own knowledge, and which I will hereafter make plainlyevident.
That they are so has been already adjudged by those who manage the Pan-Helleniccontest at Olympia
”(Herodotus, The Histories 8.43)“Tell your king who sent you how
his Hellenic viceroy of Macedonia
has received youhospitably… ”(Herodotus V, 20, 4)“
Now that these descendants of Perdiccas are Hellenes
, as they themselves say, I myself chance to know”(Herodotus V, 22, 1)“Xerxes, having so spoken, held his peace. (SS 1.) Whereupon Mardonius took the word, andsaid: ….I myself have had experience of these men when I marched against them by the orders of thy father; and though I went as far as Macedonia, and came but a little short of reaching Athensitself, yet not a soul ventured to come out against me to battle. ……But, notwithstanding that theyhave so foolish a manner of warfare,
yet these Greeks, when I led my army against them tothe very borders of Macedonia, did not so much as think of offering me battle
.”(Herodotus Book VII)“…but the Dorians on the contrary have been constantly on the move; their home in Deucalion’sreign was Phthiotis and in the reign of Dorus son of Hellen the country known as Histiaeotis in theneighbourhood of Ossa and Olympus;
driven from there by the Cadmeians they settled inPindus and were known as Macedons
; thence they migrated to Dryopis, and finally to thePeloponnese, where they got their present name of Dorians.”Herodotus, Book I, 56“…
Three brothers of the lineage of Temenos came as banished men from Argos
to Illyria,Gavganis and Aeropos and Perdikkas, and worked for the king that was there.When the king learned that when the queen baked the bread of Perdikkas, it doubled its size, thanof the the other breads, he considered that as a miracle and ordered the 3 brothers to leave hiskingdom. The brothers required their payment. Then the king told them to take the sun as apayment. Gavganis and Aeropos where taken by surprise and the youngest brother, Perdikkas,accepted the offer. He took out his sword, circled it 3 times and took the sun, which he placed inhis underarm and left with his brothers…”Herodotus VIII,137“…and that you may tell your king, who sent you,
that a Greek, the lord of Macedonia,
entertained you royally both with bed and board.”Herodotus, Book V, 20
“Let it, however, be granted that what I have now said may in the eyes of severe critics beregarded as beside the subject. I will now return to the main point at issue, as they state it. It wasthis: ‘If the circumstances are the same now as at the time when you made alliance with theAetolians, then your policy ought to remain on the same lines.’ That was their first proposition. ‘Butif they have been entirely changed, then it is fair that you should now deliberate on the demandsmade to you as on a matter entirely new and unprejudiced.’ I ask you therefore, Cleonicus andChlaeneas, who were your allies on the former occasion when you invited this people to join you?Were they not all the Greeks? But with whom are you now united, or to what kind of federation areyou now inviting this people? Is it not to one with the foreigner? A mighty similarity exists, nodoubt, in your minds, and no diversity at all!
Then you were contending for glory andsupremacy with Achaeans and Macedonians, men of kindred blood with yourselves, andwith Philip their leader; now a war of slavery is threatening Greece against men of another race, whom you think to bring against Philip, but have really unconsciously broughtagainst yourselves and all Greece.
For just as men in the stress of war, by introducing into their cities garrisons superior in strength to their own forces, while successfully repelling all danger fromthe enemy, put themselves at the mercy of their friends,–just so are the Aetolians acting in thepresent case. For in their desire to conquer Philip and humble Macedonia, they haveunconsciously brought such a mighty cloud from the west, as for the present perhaps willovershadow Macedonia first, but which in the sequel will be the origin of heavy evils to all Greece.“But if thanks are due to the Aetolians for this single service,
how highly should we honour theMacedonians, who for the greater part of their lives never cease from fighting with thebarbarians for the sake of the security of Greece?
For who is not aware that Greece wouldhave constantly stood in the greatest danger, had we not been fenced by the Macedonians andthe honourable ambition of their kings?”(Polybius, Book IX, 35, 2)“…I assert is that not only the Thessalians, but
the rest of the Greeks owed their safety toPhilip
.”(Polybius, Book IX, 33, 3)“…because
he (Philip) was the benefactor of Greece, that they all chose him commander-in-chief both on sea and land, an honour previously conferred on no one
.”(Polybius, Book IX, 33, 7)“…
he (Alexander) inflicted punishment on the Persians for their outrages on all the Greeks,and how he delivered us all from the greatest evils by enslaving the barbarians anddepriving them of the resources they used for the destruction of the Greeks,
pitting now theAthenians and now the Thebans against the ancestors of these Spartans,
how in a word hemade Asia subject to Greece
.”(Polybius, Book IX, 34, 3)“The 38th book contains the completion of the disaster of the Hellenes. For though both the wholeof Hellas and her several parts had often met with mischance, yet to none of her former defeatscan we more fittingly apply, the name of disaster with all it signifies than to the events of my owntime.
In the time I am speaking of a common misfortune befell the Peloponnesians, theBoiotians, the Phokians, the Euboians, the Lokrians, some of the cities on the Ionians Gulf,and finally the Macedonians
”(Polybius, Book IX, 38,
Wie die akademische Welt seine Aussagen sieht:
gut das du die akademische welt erwähnst
Bury & Meiggs (1985) “A History of Greece”
“The Macedonian people and their kings were of Greek stock,
as their traditions and the scanty remains of their language combine
* H. Bengston (1988) “A History of Greece: from the beginnings to the Byzantine era”
Bengston makes the following statement pertaining to the origins of the Macedonians:
“They should be included in the group of North-West Greek tribes”
On the same page he also states that :
the majority of modern historians have correctly argued for
the Hellenic origin of the Macedonians.
* N.G.L Hammond (1986) “A History of Greece to 332 B.C.”
“Greece and Macedon were akin in blood and culture.”
* N.G.L Hammond (1992) “The Miracle that was Macedonia”
“As members of the Greek race and speakers of the Greek language,
the Macedonians shared in the ability to initiate
ideas and create political forms.”
* M. Opperman (1996) “The Oxford Classical Dictionary 3rd ed.- Macedonia,Cults”
In this prestigious source Opperman states:
“Nowadays historians generally agree that the Macedonians ethnos
form part of the Greek ethnos; hence they also shared in the common religious
and cultural features of the Hellenic world“
* U. Wilcken (1967) “Alexander the Great”
“And yet when we take into account the political conditions,
religion and morals of the
Macedonians our conviction is strengthened that
They were a Greek race and akin to the Dorians“
* R. Malcolm Errington, (1993) ‘A History of Macedonia’,University of California Press, February ,
Prof. Errington states:
“Macedonian horsemen together with those of their Thessalian neighbours were later regarded
as the best in GREECE”
* Robin Lane Fox, ‘Alexander the Great’,
Robin Lane Fox explains how ancient Macedonians were viewed:
“To his ancestors (to a Persian’s ancestors) Macedonians were only known
as ‘yona takabara’, the ‘Greeks who wear shields on their heads’, an allusion to their broad-brimmed hats”
* Richard Stoneman, ‘Alexander the Great’,
Richard Stoneman writes:
“In favour of the Greek identity of the Macedonians is what
we know of their language: the place-names,
names of the months and many of the personal names,
especially royal names, which are Greek in roots and form.
’ This suggests that they did not merely use Greek as a lingua
franca, but spoke it as natives (though with a local accent
which turned Philip into Bilip, for example).
* Eugene.N.Borza (1990) “On the Shadows of Olympus”, Princeton: Princeton University Press,
Eugene Borza states:
“The macedonians themselves may have originated from the
same population pool that produced other Greek peoples.
* Ernst Badian (1982) “Studies in the history of art Vol 10: Macedonia and Greece in Late Classical and Early Hellenistic Times”
“We have now become accustomed to regarding Macedonians
as northern Greeks’ and, in extreme cases, to hearing
conquests described as in essence Greek Conquests. The former
CERTAINLY became TRUE, in Greek consciousness in the course of the Hellenistic age.
* Charles Edson, ‘Ancient Macedonian Studies in honor of Charles F. Edson’
“Important West Greek elements remained in the Pindos. These are
those whom Herodotus called ‘Makednon ethnos”
* Richard Billows ‘Antigonus the One-Eyed’
“The Macedonians, then, were probably a Greek people (though certainly
with an admixture of Illyrians and Thracians) akin in language and culture
to their neighbors to the south and west, the Thessalians and Epeirots”
* Jonathan M. Hall (1998) “Ethnic identity in Greek antiquity” Cambridge University Press
That the origin of this new population should be the supposed
Dorian of northwest Greece seemed to be
confirmed by the early appearance of cist graves
at Kalbaki in Epeiros, Kozani, Vergina and Khaukhitsa in Makedonia.“
* Robin Osborne (2004) Greek History Book, Routledge,
”Although Macedonians were accepted as Greek, after some discussion, <
for the purposes of competing at the Olympic games, and although the
language of the Macedonians appears most probably to have been a dialect of Greek related to
the dialects of north-west Greek, some Macedonian customs were distinct”
* M. C. Howatson (1989) The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature Book by Oxford University Press,
”Thus the kings were of largely Dorian Greek stock, they presumably spoke a form of Dorian Greek and their cultural tradition had Greek features. Whether or not the Macedonian people spoke a Greek dialect or a foreign tongue is still a matter of debate, but such evidence as exists suggests that they spoke a distinctive dialect of Greek, perhaps related to Aeolic”
*Anthony E. David ‘A Biographical Dictionary of Ancient Egypt’
After Alexander the Great conquered Egypt in 332 BC, the country was ruled by a line of Macedonian Greeks who descended from *Alexander’s general, Ptolemy
* George Cawkwell (1978) “Philip of Macedon,” Fellow of the University College, Oxford,
The Macedonians were Greeks. Their language was Greek, to judge by their personal names and by the names of the months of the calendar;
* David G. Hogarth, “Philip and Alexander of Macedon”
The king [of macedon] was chief in the first instance of a race of plain-dwellers, who held themselves to be, like him, of Hellenic stock
It [Macedonia] was inhabited by sturdy gentry and peasantry and by agile highlanders, all composed of the same racial elements as the Greeks
* Walter M. Ellis (1994) Ptolemy of Egypt
I fear that I have not been wholly consistent in my use of the term “Macedonian.” For the record, let me state that I believe Macedonians, ancient and modern, are Greeks
* Eric Carlton (1992) Occupation: The Policies and Practices of Military Conquerors
Scholars are now more or less agreed that they were one group of many Dorian tribes that had made their way into Greece from the Balkans in successive waves probably from as early as the eleventh century BC
* Alan Fildes , Alexander the Great, son of the gods,
Although the Macedonians spoke a Greek dialect, worshipped Greek gods and traced their nation’s origins from Olympian gods, their customes and northern Doric accent were markedly different from those of the people of the rest of Greece, who saw the Macedonia as a largely insignificant, backward monarchy
* Theodor Mommsen, (1909) The Provinces of the Roman Empire, vol.1, translated by W. P. Dickson, from the 1909 edition (Chicago, Ares Publishers , 1974),
While the Macedonians proper on the lower course of the Haliacmon (Vistritza) and the Axius (Vardar), as far as the Strymon, were an ORIGINALLY Greek stock,
* David Sacks (1995) “A Dictionary of the Ancient Greek World”, Oxford University
“Historians refer to this enlarged Greek society as the Hellenistic world. At the start of his reign, the 20 year old Alexander was the crowned king only of Macedon- a crude Greek nation northeast of mainland Greece-…. His mother Olympias, came from the ruling clan of the northwestern Greek region called Epirus…“
* Martin Sicker (2000) ‘The Pre-Islamic Middle East’
Moreover, he was a Macedonian, from the backwater of the Greek world
* L.S. Stavrianos “The Balkans since 1453″,
Recent philological and archaeological research indicates that the ancient Macedonians were in fact Greeks
* Peter G Tsouras ,“Alexander: Invincible King of Macedonia” ,
The macedonians were Greek in language and blood
* Philip Hughes ‘A History of the Church Volume 1′
The Macedonians, though the language they spoke was undoubtedly a Greek dialect, and though they were probably Greeks by blood
* R. M. Cook (1962), “The Greeks until Alexander”,
Macedonia and Epirus were the buffers of Greece in Europe..
* Hermann Bengtson, ‘History of Greece’University of Ottawa Press, 1988.
So the majority of modern historians, admittedly with the noteworthy exception of Julius Kaerst , have argued CORRECTLY for the Hellenic origin of the Macedonians. They should be included in the group of the North-West Greek tribes .
* Mortimer Chambers (1997) “The Western Experience”,
Macedonia (or Macedon) was an ancient, somewhat backward kingdom in northern Greece. Its emergence as a Hellenic (Greek) power was due to a resourceful king, Philip II (359-336)
* Jacob Abbott , Alexander the Great
Now Alexander was born the heir to the throne of one of the Grecian kingdoms. He possessed, in a very remarkable degree, the energy, and enterprise, and military skill so characteristic of the Greeks and Romans.
* John V.A. Fine (1983) ‘The Ancient Greeks: A Critical History’ Harvard University Press,
Modern scholarship, after many generations of argument, now almost unanimously recognises them as Greeks, a branch of the Dorians and ‘NorthWest Greeks’ who, after long residence in the north Pindus region, migrated eastwards
* Rene Guerdan (1969), French Historian
The Macedonians are and have always been Greeks, and the creation of a “Socialist Republic of Macedonia” with Skopje as capital is only a sad farce.
* David H. Levinson, Encyclopaedia of World Cultures
It should be noted that there is no connection between the Macedonians of the time of Alexander the great who were related to other Hellenic tribes and the Macedonians of today, who are of Slavic Origin and related to the Bulgarians.
* Bim Sherman (1930)’The Century’
“And yet the Hindus of the Punjab were simply old-fashioned Hindus, as the
Macedonians were old-fashioned Greeks. ”
* Ernest Barker “The European Inheritance”
The Macedonians were backward Greeks, with a good deal of Illyrian and other
admixture, a rustic dialect, and a native pantheon
* Archaeological Institute of America (1948)
The Macedonians were Greeks in contradistinction to Barbarians, but they lived
on the periphery of the Greek world, far removed in space and spirit from the rest of Greeks.
* Benjamin I. Wheeler, Alexander the Great: The Merging of East and West in Universal History –
That the Macedonians were Greek by race there can be no longer any doubt.
They were the northernmost fragments of the race left stranded behind the barriers..”
* Norman Karol Gottwald “The Politics of Ancient Israel”
Although the Macedonians were Greek in language and culture, they were not primary carriers of Greek political democracy.
* Nigel Guy Wilson (2006) Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece
“The latest archaeological findings have confirmed that Macedonia took it’s name from a tribe of tall , Greek-speaking people , the Makednoi ...”
* Mark Grossman “Biographical Dictionary of World Military Leaders”
“When Alexander was just a child, his father was making Macedon (Now Macedonia in northern Greece) into one of the Greatest Greek city-states, as well as the dominant power in the Balkans.”
* Rober Morkot, The Penguin Historical Atlas of ancient Greece.
in the northwest, the peoples of Molossis, Orestis and Lynkestis spoke west Greek and although they absorbed other groups into their territory, they were essentially “Greeks”. The main difference between Macedonia and the city states of the south was that it was ruled by a king and powerful nobility.
* J.J. Pollitt Art and Experience in Classical Greece
The Macedonians were ethnically related to the Greeks and spoke a dialect of Greek, but their loose feudal kingdom the northern border of the Greek world had always been regarded as culturally backward.
* Eric Carlton “Occupation – The policies and practices of Military Conquerors”
Scholars are now more or less agreed that they were one group of many Dorian tribes that had made their way into Greece from the Balkans in successive waves probably from as early as the eleventh century BC.
* J.R. Hamilton “Alexander the Great”
That the Macedonians were of Greek stock seems certain.
* Joseph M. Bryant, Moral codes and social structure in ancient Greece,
The Macedonians were of Greek stock, though for centuries they had remained outside the mainstream of Hellenic civilization.
* N. Jayapalan “comprehensive study of Aristotle”,
This was Macedonia in the strict sense the land where settled those immigrants of Greek stock afterwards called Macedonians.
* Katheryn A. Bard, Encyclopaedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt,
“The Macedonians were originally one of several Greek tribes living on the northern frontier of the Hellenic world
pass auf kollege ich muss dir eigentlich reingarnichts beweisen du stellst hier irgendwelche theorien auf die nicht der wirklichkeit entsprechen nicht umgekehrt